Psychology AP midterm

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170 terms · Foreman's class

Mark believes that people are genetically predisposed to dislike bitter-tasting foods because this has enhanced human survival. His belief best illustrates the ________ perspective.

evolutionary

Arguments as to whether psychological differences between men and women result from biological or social influences most clearly involve a debate over the issue of:

nature versus nurture.

Who most clearly emphasized that the immaterial mind was distinct from the body?

Descartes

Dr. Tiao conducts basic research on the effects of head injuries on people's problem-solving and abstract-reasoning skills. Which psychological specialty does her research best represent?

biological psychology

The study of inner thoughts and feelings is to the study of observable behavior as ________ is to ________.

Titchener; Watson

Nature is to nurture as ________ is to ________.

heredity; experience

The value of introspection was most clearly dismissed by:

behaviorists.

Professor Kim suggests that young children from all cultures can distinguish between singular and plural nouns because the concept of quantity is inborn. The Professor's suggestion would have been most readily accepted by:

Plato.

Which perspective is most directly concerned with assessing the relative contributions of heredity and experience to personality development?

behavior genetics

Unlike Socrates, Aristotle emphasized that knowledge is a product of:

experience.

An explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts behavior or events is called a(n):

theory

According to Emily's grandfather, Adolf Hitler's obvious emotional instability made it clear from the beginning days of his international conflicts that Germany would inevitably lose World War II. The grandfather's claim best illustrates:

the hindsight bias.

In reporting the effect of alcohol consumption on self-consciousness, psychological researchers would specify exactly how they measured self-consciousness. They are thereby providing a(n):

operational definition.

If psychologists were to find that we are especially attracted to people whose traits are different from our own, this discovery would likely seem obvious and unsurprising to college students because:

students, like everyone else, have a tendency to exaggerate their ability to have foreseen the outcome of past discoveries.

Animal researchers are more likely to support regulations protecting:

the well-being of cats than the well-being of mice.

In order to verify the dependability of a new scientific finding, psychological researchers are most likely to engage in the process of:

replication.

Psychology experiments are typically designed to:

test and evaluate theoretical principles.

Alexandra is told that research supports the value of cosmetic surgery for boosting self-esteem. Belinda is told that the esteem-enhancing value of cosmetic surgery has been refuted by research., Both women would consider the findings to be common sense. This best illustrates the power of:

the hindsight bias.

Thinking that she had outperformed most of her classmates, Glenda was surprised to receive just an average grade on her psychology test. Glenda's experience best illustrates:

overconfidence.

The personal values of psychologists are likely to influence their choice of:

topics of investigation, research methods, explanatory theories.

After being mistreated by many children in her neighborhood, Mrs. Johnson concluded that kids in today's society are typically cruel and insensitive. Mrs. Johnson ought to remind herself that reasonable generalizations depend on:

observing representative samples.

Daniel and Donald are identical twins who were separated at birth and raised in different countries. When they were finally reunited for the first time as adults, the men were amazed to discover that they were both plumbers, both avid tennis players, and both addicted to chocolates. The men would be best advised to recognize the danger of:

perceiving order in random events.

A random sample of a large group of people is one in which:

correlations.

In order to assess the extent to which mortality rates increase as people age, researchers would most likely make use of:

correlations.

In order to minimize the extent to which placebo effects contribute to outcome differences between experimental and control conditions in a drug-treatment study, researchers are likely to make use of:

the double-blind procedure.

Seven members of a girls' club reported the following individual earnings from their sale of raffle tickets: $5, $9, $4, $11, $6, $4, and $3. In this distribution of individual earnings, the:

median is less than the mean and greater than the mode.

If college graduates typically earn more money than high school graduates, this would indicate that level of education and income are:

positively correlated.

During the past month, Henri and Sylvia each ate 10 candy bars, while Jerry ate 8, Tricia ate 6, and Tahli ate only 1. The mean number of candy bars eaten by these individuals was:

7

Researchers observe random cases because they are likely to be ________ samples.

representative

A positive correlation between self-esteem and academic success would indicate that:

C) those with high self-esteem are more academically successful than those with low self-esteem.

After 3 hours of playing a physically exhausting professional tennis match, Chitra began to experience a sense of physical exhilaration and pleasure. It is likely that her feelings were most directly linked to the release of:

endorphins.

Messages are transmitted from your spinal cord to your digestive system's stomach muscles by the:

sympathetic nervous system.

Paralysis triggered by botulin poisoning is most likely to be relieved by a(n):

ACh agonist.

Morphine functions as a(n):

endorphin agonist.

When Dirk was stung by a bee, the pain message was transmitted to his spinal cord by the ________ nervous system.

peripheral

An all-or-none response pattern is characteristic of the:

initiation of neural impulses.

Endorphins are most directly involved in the control of:

physical pain.

An undersupply of GABA is most closely linked to:

insomnia.

A drug that inhibits the release of a particular neurotransmitter into the synaptic gap is called a(n):

antagonist

Nerves are neural cables containing many:

axons

After a sky-diving accident, Laurie was unable to make sense of other people's speech. It is likely that her cortex was damaged in:

Wernicke's area.

Information is most quickly transmitted from one cerebral hemisphere to the other by the:

corpus callosum.

Deaf people whose native language is sign best illustrates:

plasticity.

The region of your cerebral cortex that enables you to recognize a person as your own mother is:

an association area.

Which neural center in the limbic system plays a central role in emotions such as aggression and fear?

amygdala

Some researchers believe that binge eating may be linked to:

a reward deficiency syndrome.

The part of the left temporal lobe that is involved in understanding language is known as:

Wernicke's area.

If an individual's right cerebral hemisphere is completely destroyed by disease, that person is unable to see anything:

in his or her left field of vision.

The percentage of left-handers is dramatically lower among:

older people than among younger people.

A brain lesion refers to ________ of brain tissue.

destruction

A fertilized egg is called a(n):

zygote.

Research on the perceptual abilities of newborns indicates that they:

look more at a facelike image than at a bull's-eye pattern.

Boys first begin producing sperm during:

puberty

From 2 weeks to 9 weeks after conception, the human organism is known as a(n):

embryo

Sierra, a 28-year-old heroin addict, is pregnant. Her baby will be born:

a heroin addict.

The developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth is known as a(n):

fetus.

The branch of psychology that systematically focuses on the physical, mental, and social changes that occur throughout the life cycle is called:

developmental psychology.

One of the three major issues in developmental psychology involves the study of:

personality stability

When Joan touched her infant's cheek, he turned his head toward the side that was touched and opened his mouth. Joan was eliciting the:

rooting reflex.

Research indicates that 3-week-old human infants can distinguish:

their mother's voice from that of a female stranger.

According to Piaget, assimilation involves:

interpreting new experiences in terms of one's current understanding.

Current research on cognitive development indicates that:

mental skills develop earlier and more gradually than Piaget believed.

Identical twins typically begin walking on nearly the same day. This best illustrates the importance of _______ to motor skills.

maturation

According to Piaget, the preoperational stage is to the concrete operational stage as ________ is to ________.

egocentrism; conservation

A tendency to exaggerate the extent to which our own opinions are shared by others best illustrates:

egocentrism.

Biological growth processes that are relatively uninfluenced by experience and that enable orderly changes in behavior are referred to as:

maturation.

Erik Erikson suggested that children with a secure attachment to their parents are especially likely to experience:

basic trust.

Babies who are unable to predict how their parents will react to their cries for care and attention are especially likely to show signs of:

insecure attachment.

Parents who discuss and negotiate family rules are especially likely to raise children who are:

self-confident.

Dmitri is a typical 6-month-old. When he looks into a mirror he is likely to:

reach toward the image as if it were another child.

Piaget is to cognitive development as Erikson is to ________ development.

psychosocial

Nonreproductive sexual characteristics such as the deepened male voice and male facial hair are called:

secondary sex characteristics.

Which of the following is true of adolescence today as compared to a century ago?

Menarche occurs earlier in life, and adult independence occurs later in life.

Compared with Americans 40 years ago, Americans today are likely to:

marry for the first time at a later age.

Lolita vacillates between acting rebellious toward her parents and high school teachers and behaving with compliance and respect. Erikson would have suggested that Lolita's inconsistency illustrates:

role confusion.

Research on teen social relationships indicates that most adolescents:

like their parents.

As individuals progress through their teen years into early adulthood, their self-concepts typically become:

more positive.

According to Erikson, adolescents who are unable to develop a sense of identity experience:

role confusion.

The improved judgment and impulse control that occur as adolescents grow older is made possible by the development of:

the frontal lobes.

Killing one person in order to save five by throwing a switch that diverts a runaway trolley is judged as more morally acceptable than killing one person in order to save five by pushing a stranger directly into the path of the oncoming trolley. This best illustrates that moral judgments may reflect:

gut-level intuitions.

Older adults outperformed younger adults in their responses to New York Times crossword puzzles. The superior performance of these older adults best illustrates the value of:

crystallized intelligence.

Marriage bonds are especially likely to endure when members of a couple:

engage in more positive than negative interactions with each other.

The conflicting results of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of aging and intelligence are of greatest relevance to the issue of:

stability or change.

Research on people aged 65 and over has shown that:

most elderly people experience a noticeable loss of visual sensitivity.

An irreversible brain disorder marked by a deterioration of reasoning and memory is called:

Alzheimer's disease.

The deterioration of memory, reasoning, and language that accompanies Alzheimer's disease is called:

dementia.

The grief experienced over the death of a loved one is especially severe when death is experienced:

as a time that required sharing honest emotions with others.

Research suggests that during early and middle adulthood:

crystallized intelligence increases and fluid intelligence decreases.

In surveying women who either had or had not yet experienced menopause, researchers have discovered that:

postmenopausal women frequently agree that after menopause women feel better than they have for years.

In Erikson's theory, the sense of integrity achieved in late adulthood refers to the feeling that:

one's life has been meaningful.

Weber's law is relevant to an understanding of:

difference thresholds.

If an adult develops cataracts, his or her:

absolute threshold for light is likely to increase.

Psychophysics is best defined as the study of relationships between:

physical stimuli and psychological experience.

Those who believe in the value of subliminal audiotapes would be wrong to claim that:

unconsciously processed information is unusually persuasive.

Damage to the temporal lobe region of the brain essential for facial recognition produces a loss of:

perception.

An exhausted forest ranger may notice the faintest scent of a forest fire, whereas much stronger but less important odors fail to catch her attention. This fact would be of greatest relevance to:

signal detection theory.

Although Manuel was sitting right next to his parents, he smelled a skunk minutes before they did. Apparently, Manuel has a lower ________ for skunk odor than his parents have.

absolute threshold

You typically fail to consciously perceive that your own nose is in your line of vision. This best illustrates:

selective attention.

A subliminal message is one that is presented:

below one's absolute threshold for awareness.

Which theory assumes that top-down processing can influence a person's absolute threshold for a particular stimulus?

signal detection theory

Two-year-old Philip was recently clawed by the neighbor's cat. Philip's newly developed tendency to fear all small animals demonstrates the process of:

generalization.

In Pavlov's experiments on the salivary conditioning of dogs, a CR was:

salivation to the sound of a tone.

An experimenter plans to condition a dog to salivate to a light by pairing the light with food. The dog will learn to salivate to the light most quickly if the experimenter presents the light:

a half-second before the food.

The researcher most closely associated with the study of classical conditioning is:

Pavlov.

Male Japanese quail became sexually aroused by a red light that had previously been associated with the presentation of a female quail. In this instance, the female quail is a:

US.

The most crucial ingredient in all learning is:

experience.

Who introduced the term behaviorism?

Watson

In Pavlov's experiments on the salivary conditioning of dogs, the CS was:

the sound of a tone.

After recovering from a serious motorcycle accident, Gina was afraid to ride a motorcycle but not a bicycle. Gina's pattern of fear best illustrates:

discrimination.

John B. Watson emphasized that:

learning should be explained without any reference to mental processes.

Because Saleem was spanked on several occasions for biting electric cords, he no longer does so. Saleem's behavior change best illustrates the value of:

operant conditioning.

Dr. Raheja places a rat in a small, glass-enclosed chamber where it learns to press a bar to obtain a food pellet. Obviously, Dr. Raheja is using a ________ to study learning.

Skinner box

Classical conditioning is to learned associations between ________ as operant conditioning is to learned associations between ________.

two stimuli; a response and a stimulus

B. F. Skinner recommended that we control behavior with ________ rather than with ________.

reinforcement; punishment

A variable-interval schedule of reinforcement is one in which a response is reinforced only after a(n):

unpredictable time period has elapsed.

Latent learning can occur in the absence of:

reinforcement.

Punishment is a potentially hazardous way for teachers to control young children's behaviors because:

the use of punishment could condition children to fear and avoid school.

Janna's behavior is more strongly influenced by the momentary thrill of unprotected sex than by the prospect of an unwanted pregnancy or sexually transmitted infection. This best illustrates the impact of:

immediate reinforcement.

Learning associations between one's own personal actions and resulting events is most relevant to the process of:

operant conditioning.

The desire to engage in an activity for the sake of its own enjoyment involves:

intrinsic motivation.

Without any explicit training from adults, many 8-year-old children know how to turn the ignition key in order to start their parents' cars. This best illustrates the importance of:

observational learning.

The transmission of cultural fads and fashions best illustrates the impact of:

observational learning.

Neuroscientists have discovered mirror neurons in the:

frontal lobe adjacent to the motor cortex.

The tendency for children to imitate behaviors seen on television best illustrates the importance of:

immediate reinforcement

We are most likely to imitate the behavior of models if we observe that their actions are:

followed by reinforcement.

Mr. Zandee has stopped smoking because he wants to model healthy behavior patterns for his children. Mr. Zandee is apparently aware of the importance of ________ in his children's development.

observational learning

Children exposed to a model who preached one thing and did another:

said what the model said and did what the model did.

Most researchers who have examined the effects of viewing televised aggression conclude that:

viewing violence leads children and teenagers to behave aggressively.

A dramatic increase in children's violent play immediately after they viewed a video of the "Power Rangers" illustrates the role of television as a source of:

observational learning.

Prolonged exposure to TV violence leads viewers to experience:

less sympathy for victims of violence and to become less upset by the sight of real life violence.

One explanation for the fundamental attribution error involves observers':

limited visual perspective.

The participants in Philip Zimbardo's simulated prison study:

were so endangered by their role-playing experience that the study was discontinued.

Studies of role-playing most directly highlight the effects of:

actions on attitudes.

Feeling responsible for behavior that violates our conscience is most likely to contribute to:

cognitive dissonance.

Poverty and unemployment are likely to be explained in terms of ________ by political liberals and in terms of ________ by political conservatives.

situational constraints; personal dispositions

After giving in to her friends' request that she drink alcohol with them, 16-year-old Jessica found that she couldn't resist the pressure they exerted on her to try heroin. Her experience best illustrates:

the foot-in-the-door phenomenon.

A life insurance salesperson who takes advantage of the foot-in-the-door phenomenon would be most likely to:

ask customers to respond to a brief survey of their attitudes regarding life insurance.

The fundamental attribution error is most likely to lead observers to conclude that unemployed people:

are irresponsible and unmotivated.

When no weapons of mass destruction were found following the U.S. invasion of Iraq, some Americans revised their memories of the main rationale for going to war. The text author suggests that we can best explain why people change their memories in terms of:

cognitive dissonance theory.

During a test, Abe impulsively copied several answers from a nearby student's paper. He felt very uncomfortable about having done this until he convinced himself that copying answers is not wrong if classmates are careless enough to expose their test sheets. Which theory best explains why Abe adopted this new attitude?

cognitive dissonance theory

Professors Maksoud, Struthers, and Vasic each tend to think that obtaining a university degree is easier today than it was when they were students. After discussing the matter over coffee, they are even more convinced that obtaining a degree is easier today. This episode provides an example of:

group polarization.

Group polarization refers to:

the enhancement of a group's prevailing attitudes through group discussion.

The chameleon effect involves:

automatic mimicry.

In Milgram's first study of obedience, the majority of "teachers" who were ordered to shock a "learner":

complied fully and delivered the highest level of shock.

In Milgram's experiments, participants were torn between whether they should respond to the pleas of the ________ or the demands of the ________.

"learner"; experimenter

Circumstances that increase ________ are likely to decrease ________.

self-awareness; deindividuation

Social loafing refers to the tendency for people to:

exert less effort when they are pooling their efforts toward a common goal.

The value of social conformity is most likely to be emphasized in:

North America.

In all of Milgram's obedience experiments, participants were deceived about:

how much they would actually be paid for participating in the research.

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