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Campbell Bio Ch 17 (From Gene to Protein)

The direction of synthesis of an RNA transcript is _____.

a) 1' —> 5'
b) 5' —> 3'
c) 1' —> 3'
d) 3' —> 5'
e) 2' —> 4'

b) 5' —> 3'

Generally speaking, which of the following mutations would most severely affect the protein coded for by a gene?

a) a base substitution at the beginning of the gene
b) a base substitution at the end of the gene
c) a frameshift deletion at the beginning of the gene
d) a frameshift deletion at the end of the gene

c) a frameshift deletion at the beginning of the gene

If A, B, and C are all required for growth, a strain that is mutant for the gene-encoding enzyme A would be able to grow on which of the following media?

a) minimal medium supplemented with nutrient C only
b) minimal medium supplemented with nutrient A only
c) minimal medium supplemented with nutrient B only
d) minimal medium
e) minimal medium supplemented with nutrients A and C

c) minimal medium supplemented with nutrient B only

The initiator tRNA attaches at the ribosome's _____ site.

a) A
b) translocation
c) E
d) P
e) Q

d) P

The nitrogenous base adenine is found in all members of which group?

a) proteins, carbohydrates, and ATP
b) proteins, ATP, and DNA
c) ATP, RNA, and DNA
d) α glucose, ATP, and DNA
e) proteins, triglycerides, and testosterone

c) ATP, RNA, and DNA

Polypeptides are assembled from _____.

a) hexoses
b) glycerol
c) nucleotides
d) proteins
e) amino acids

e) amino acids

RNA processing converts the RNA transcript into _____.

a) a protein
b) DNA
c) a eukaryotic cell
d) mRNA
e) a polypeptide

d) mRNA

What enzyme catalyzes the attachment of an amino acid to tRNA?

a) aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase
b) rubisco
c) dextrinase
d) argininosuccinate lyase
e) nuclease

a) aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase

What is the effect of a nonsense mutation in a gene?

a) It has no effect on the amino acid sequence of the encoded protein.
b) It alters the reading frame of the mRNA.
c) It changes an amino acid in the encoded protein.
d) It prevents introns from being excised.
e) It introduces a premature stop codon into the mRNA.

e) It introduces a premature stop codon into the mRNA.

What name is given to the process in which a strand of DNA is used as a template for the manufacture of a strand of pre-mRNA?

a) RNA processing
b) gene expression
c) polypeptide formation
d) transcription
e) translation

d) transcription

What name is given to the process in which pre-mRNA is edited into mRNA?

a) RNA processing
b) gene expression
c) polypeptide formation
d) transcription
e) translation

a) RNA processing

What name is given to the process in which the information encoded in a strand of mRNA is used to construct a protein?

a) RNA processing
b) gene expression
c) polypeptide formation
d) transcription
e) translation

e) translation

Where does RNA polymerase begin transcribing a gene into mRNA?

a) The ribosome directs it to the correct portion of the DNA molecule.
b) It looks for the AUG start codon.
c) It starts after a certain nucleotide sequence called a promoter.
d) It starts at one end of the chromosome.
e) Transfer RNA acts to translate the message to RNA polymerase.

c) It starts after a certain nucleotide sequence called a promoter.

You add polynucleotide phosphorylase to a solution of adenosine triphosphate and guanosine triphosphate. How many artificial mRNA 3 nucleotide codons would be possible?

a) 3
b) 4
c) 8
d) 16
e) 64

c) 8

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