Mastering HW CHapter 24 and 25

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An individual presents with a pinkish red rash and a red sore throat. Gram-positive cocci are cultured from a throat swab. The cocci are growing in chains. Which of the following is the most likely conclusion?
ANSWER:
The patient has scarlet fever.
The patient has otitis media.
The patient has epiglottitis.
The patient has diphtheria.

The patient has scarlet fever

Which of the following is NOT caused by infection of the upper respiratory tract?
ANSWER:
whooping cough
scarlet fever
streptococcal pharyngitis
diphtheria

whooping cough

Which of the following statements concerning Pneumocystis jirovecii is FALSE?
ANSWER:
P. jirovecii trophozoites produce sexually by fission.
Infection usually causes few or no symptoms if the individual is healthy.
Cysts are found in the lining of the alveoli.
P. jirovecii has characteristics of both fungi and protozoa but is now commonly classified as a fungus.

P. jirovecii trophozoites produce sexually by fission.

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of tuberculosis infection?
ANSWER:
An individual could become infected by standing next to an infected person who is coughing.
Treatment requires a minimum of 6 months of antibiotic therapy.
The adaptive immune response is mostly cell mediated, because Mycobacterium tuberculosis lives and reproduces inside macrophages.
A TB diagnosis can be rapidly confirmed because the pathogen grows quickly.

A TB diagnosis can be rapidly confirmed because the pathogen grows quickly.

Which statement regarding influenza (flu) is true?
ANSWER:
An individual who has cold symptoms and diarrhea probably has the flu.
Influenzavirus is a DNA virus.
The H and N designations refer to coat proteins.
Antigenic shift can occur because the genome is in several pieces.

Antigenic shift can occur because the genome is in several pieces.

The common cold __________.
ANSWER:
is preferably treated with antibiotics
can result from deposition of a single rhinovirus on the nasal mucosa
is usually caused by coronaviruses.
is caused by viruses that thrive at temperatures slightly above normal body temperature

can result from deposition of a single rhinovirus on the nasal mucosa

Which statement regarding normal microbiota of the human respiratory system is FALSE?
ANSWER:
The ciliary escalator in the bronchial tubes keeps the lower respiratory tract nearly sterile.
The upper respiratory tract is mostly sterile.
Potentially pathogenic microorganisms are present in nonsterile portions of the respiratory tract but usually do not cause disease.
The trachea normally may contain a few bacteria.

The upper respiratory tract is mostly sterile.

____________ antibodies are found in mucosal secretions and help to protect the respiratory system from infection.

IgA

Which of the following NOT true for both hepatitis B and hepatitis C infection?
ANSWER:
The virus can cause a chronic disease.
The infection is transmitted through blood and body fluids.
Diagnosis can be achieved through testing the blood for antibodies.
The disease is prevented by vaccination.

The disease is prevented by vaccination.

What do hepatitis A and hepatitis B have in common?
ANSWER:
Both can result in a carrier state.
Both can be prevented by a vaccine.
Both often result in a mild disease.
Both are transmitted via the fecal-oral route.

both can be prevented by a vaccine

What organ is most affected by hepatitis B virus?
ANSWER:
spleen
kidneys
meninges
liver

liver

Vaccines can be used to protect at-risk individuals from all of the following liver diseases EXCEPT __________.

Hepatitis C

Choose the FALSE statement from those listed below.
ANSWER:
Intestinal gas includes microbially produced oxygen.
Certain accessory digestive structures lie outside the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and convey their secretions via ducts.
The digestive system includes the mouth and pharynx.
Over the course of an average life span, approximately 25 tons of food pass through the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.

Intestinal gas includes microbially produced oxygen.

John went to a picnic. He took some leftover chicken and rice home, heated it on the stove, ate it, and got sick two hours later. John thought the heating made his food safe because it would have killed any bacteria present. He didn't know that __________ produces a heat-stable toxin.
ANSWER:
Shigella dysenteriae
Salmonella enterica
Vibrio cholerae
Staphylococcus aureus

S. aureus

A patient exhibits hemorrhagic colitis and is treated via intravenous rehydration. The pathogen is a gram-negative rod. It is isolated and differentiated from related organisms based on its inability to ferment sorbitol. Which of the following is a likely diagnosis?
ANSWER:
Bacillus cereus gastroenteritis
Escherichia coli gastroenteritis
salmonellosis
Clostridium perfringens gastroenteritis

Escherichia coli gastroenteritis

Worldwide, __________ cause one of the most common helminthic infections. Diagnosis is frequently made when a worm emerges from the anus, mouth, or nose.
ANSWER:
Ascaris lumbricoides
Trichinella
hookworms
tapeworms

Ascaris lumbricoides

Which is the correct sequence of events regarding the stages of tooth decay? 1. Dentin decay 2. Enamel decay 3. Plaque 4. Pulp decay

3-2-1-4

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