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Key Terms for AP Euro

Tudor

English Family Dynasty

Valois

French Family Dynasty (1475-1589)

Bourbon

French Family Dynasty (1589-1740)

Hapsburgs

Spanish and Austrian Family Dynasty

Romanov

Russian Family Dynasty

Hohenzollern

Prussian Family Dynasty

Edict of Nantes

1598, decree promulgated at Nantes by King Henry IV to restore internal peace in France, which had been torn by the Wars of Religion; the edict defined the rights of the French Protestants

Louis XIV

an absolute monarch that built up France's internal strength through finance and military, strengthened army and connected france through trades routes, catholic religiion and the capital versailes and foreign expansion during his reign

Louis XIII

king of France from 1610 to 1643 who relied heavily on the advice of Cardinal Richelieu (1601-1643)

Richelieu

architect of French absolutism who was prominent church official, served as chief minister to King Louis XIII from 1624- 1642, worked to undermine power of nobles and enhance that of the king, built large bureaucracy, attacked French Calvinists

Charles V

Holy Roman emperor (1519-1558) and king of Spain as Charles I (1516-1556). He summoned the Diet of Worms (1521) and the Council of Trent (1545-1563).

Diet of Worms

Assembly of the estates of the empire, called by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in 1521. Luther was ordered to recant but he refused. Charles V declared Luther an outlaw.

War of Spanish Succession

Louis XIV gained power in Spain from his grandson and did not divide the Spanish possessions between himself and the Roman Empire

Elizabeth I

ruled from 1558-1603; followed a policy that was a middle course between Catholic and Protestant extremes. She sets up a national Church, is declared head of the Anglican Church, establishes a state Church that moderates Catholics and Protestants, allowed priests to marry, allowed sermons to be delivered in English, and made the Book of Common Prayer more acceptable to Catholics.

Mary I

This was the queen who reverted back to Catholicism in England for five years and during this reign, she executed many Protestants

Oliver Cromwell

English military, political, and religious figure who led the Parliamentarian victory in the English Civil War (1642-1649) and called for the execution of Charles I. As lord protector of England (1653-1658) he ruled as a virtual dictator.

James II

closet Catholic, fled to France during Glorious Revolution

Peter the Great

czar of Russia who introduced ideas from western Europe to reform the government

Time of Troubles

followed death of Ivan IV without heir early in 17th century; boyars attempted to use vacuum of power to reestablish their authority; ended with selection of Michael Romanov as tsar in 1613.

Nationalism

the doctrine that your national culture and interests are superior to any other

Capitalism

an economic system in which investment in and ownership of the means of production, distribution, and exchange of wealth is made and maintained chiefly by private individuals or corporations, esp. as contrasted to cooperatively or state-owned means of wealth.

Feudalism

system in which poor people are legally bound to work for wealthy landowners

Absolutism

a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)

Constitutionalism

Government in which power is distributed and limited by a system of laws that must be obeyed by the rulers.

Lutheranism

The religious doctrine that Martin Luther developed; it differed from Catholicismin the doctrine of salvation, which Luther believed could be achieved by faith alone, not by good works; Lutheranism was the first Protestant faith

Calvinism

Protestant sect founded by John Calvin. Emphasized a strong moral code and believed in predestination (the idea that God decided whether or not a person would be saved as soon as they were born). Calvinists supported constitutional representative government and the separation of church and state.

Protestantism

the theological system of any of the churches of western Christendom that separated from the Roman Catholic Church during the Reformation

Pietism

This was a movement within Lutheranism that revived Protestantism that called for an emotional relationship, allowed for the priesthood of all believers, and the Christian rebirth in everyday affairs

Liberalism

an economic theory advocating free competition and a self-regulating market and the gold standard

Socialism

A system in which society, usually in the form of the government, owns and controls the means of production

Radicalism

the political orientation of those who favor revolutionary change in government and society

Zollverein

Economic custom union of German states, founded in 1834 by Prussia. Eliminated internal tariffs.

Marxism

the political, economic, and social principles espoused by 19th century economist Karl Marx; he viewed the struggle of workers as a progression of historical forces that would proceed from a class struggle of the proletariat (workers) exploited by capitalists (business owners), to a socialist "dictatorship of the proletariat," to, finally, a classless society - Communism

Bourgeoisie

educated, middle class of France; provided force behind the Revolution

Rousseau

Wrote Discourse on the Origins of the Inequality of Mankind, The Social Contract, & Emile. He identified the human nature was originally happy but was corrupted when man claimed that they owned land. Said the government must rule at the general will of the people so that the most people are benefited. Hated Parlaiment because the delegates made laws not the people

Enlightenment

The intellectual revolution of the eighteenth century in which the philosophes stressed reason, natural law, and progress in their criticism of prevailing social injustices.

Galilei

Noticed the moon has craters and that Jupiter has 4 moons. discovered the law of inertia and that all objects fall at the same speed. under house arrest

Copernicus

Developed the first modern theory of a sun-centered universe

Heliocentric

Sun is the center of the universe

Brahe

Amassed nearly 20 years worth of astrological data that eventually led to the disproval of the geocentric theory.

Newton

wrote Principia in 1687. Made the 3 laws of mechanics and law of gravity. He also invented calculus.

Descartes

Wrote Discourse on Method. Believed in Cartesian Dualism where the body can be doubted, but the mind can't so the two must be radically different. Used deductive reasoning (reasoning through previously know facts) to come to conclusions.

Bacon

English scientist and Franciscan monk who stressed the importance of experimentation

Romanticism

a movement in literature and art during the late 18th and early 19th centuries that celebrated nature rather than civilization

Voltaire

French philosopher and writer whose works epitomize the Age of Enlightenment, often attacking injustice and intolerance

Locke

Wrote Two Treatises of Government. Said human nature lived free and had the natural rights of life, liberty, and property. He said government was created in order to protect these rights and if the government failed to do so it was the duty of the people to rebel

War of Austrian Succession

This war was over the inheritance of the throne by Maria Theresa, for the Salic law prevented a woman from solely ruling the state

Navigation Acts

Laws that governed trade between England and its colonies. Colonists were required to ship certain products exclusively to England. These acts made colonists very angry because they were forbidden from trading with other countries.

Hapsburg Valois

Wars between CharlesV and Valois family of France to gain control of Burgandian Netherlands

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