Unit 1: Political History of the Jewish People and Israel

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(the second packet he gave us)

To what period does the term "silent years" refer?

The intertestamental period

When was the intertestamental period?

400BC-4BC (from the end of the Hebrew Bible canon to the beginning of NT history)

Why should we study the Intertestamental period?

In order to understand the historical and cultural background and context of the New Testament

What year did Assyria conquer the Northern Kingdom of Israel?

721/722BC

When was the first Babylonian deportation?

605BC

When was the second Babylonian deportation?

597BC

When was the third Babylonian deportation?

586/587BC

What nation conquered the Northern Kingdom of Israel?

The Assyrian Empire

What nation conquered the Southern Kingdom of Judah?

The Babylonian Empire

What empire conquered the Babylonian Empire?

The Persian Empire

When did the Persians conquer Babylon?

539BC

Who issued the decree that allowed captives to return to their homelands?

Cyrus the Great

Where is Cyrus's decree allowing captives (including Jews) to move back to their homelands mentioned in the Bible?

Ezra 1

When was the first return?

538BC

When was the second return?

457BC

When was the third return?

444BC

Who led the first return from exile?

Zerubbabel

Who led the second return from exile?

Ezra

Who led the third return from exile?

Nehemiah

What was the only nation other than Israel to come back from the dead?

Trick question- there hasn't been any.

Which is more significant: the Babylonian Talmud or the Jerusalem Talmud?

The Babylonian Talmud

What is the "diaspora?"

refers to how the Jews have spread out all over the world

The 2nd Jewish Commonwealth refers to what period?

530BC-70AD (time during which the 2nd temple was in existence)

What is the "Samaritan Schism?"

Jews of "mixed blood" weren't recognized by the Jews as true Israelites, and they built a rival temple.

Where did the Samaritans build their temple?

Mount Gerazim

Where is the Samaritans' temple mentioned in the Bible?

John 4

What is a sage?

a scholar or a scribe

Who interpreted the Torah?

scribes

What term describes the Jewish way of life from the post-exilic period onward?

Judaism (it now had racial AND religious aspects)

Who was Alexander the Great's father?

Phillip, king of Macedonia

When was Alexander the Great born?

356BC

Who was Alexander the Great's teacher?

Aristotle

When did Alexander consolidate the politically divided Greek city-states and assume political leadership of Greece?

336-335BC

What is Hellenization?

the promotion of the Greek way of life, language, and culture

Who defeated the Persian Empire?

Alexander the Great

Alexander's victory at the Granicus River in 334BC gave him control of what area?

Asia Minor

Alexander's victory at Issus in 333BC gave him control of what lands?

Syria, Israel, and Egypt

Alexander's victory at Gaugamela in 331BC gave him control of what?

the heartland of Persia, all the way tot he Indus River

What happened when Alexander the Great died in 323BC?

His kingdom was divided between his generals

The conquests of Alexander the great ushered in what age?

The Hellenistic Age

The Hellenistic Age accelerated the acceptance of what throughout the Mediterranean world?

Greek culture and ideas

What is koine Greek?

the everyday speech of a common Greek

Alexander established cultural centers wherever he went for what purpose?

to Hellenize the people he conquered

How would Hellenization later help the Gospel?

Greek was a common language throughout most of the world, so it was easy to transmit/communicate the Gospel to people, even if they were far away.

Who were the Diadochi?

Alexander the Great's successors

Who made an attempt to reunify Alexander's empire?

Antigonus I

Where was Antigonus I defeated in trying to reunify the empire?

the Battle of Ipsus

Who defeated Antigonus I?

Ptolemy I, Seleucus I, Lysimachus, and Antipater

Over what area did Ptolemy I gain control?

Egypt

Over what area did Seleucus I gain control?

Syria and Mesopotamia

Over what area did Lysimachus gain control?

Thrace

Over what area did Antipater gain control?

Macedonia

Which two of Alexander's successors quickly faded from the scene?

Lysimachus and Antipater

Which two of Alexander's successors continued to fight over control of Israel in several different wars?

Ptolemy and Seleucid

What was the capital of the Ptolemic Empire?

Alexandria, Egypt

From 301BC-198BC, who ruled Israel (up to the city of Tyre)?

Egypt

What kind of policy did the Ptolemies exercise?

A Policy of Toleration

What kind of policy did the Seleucids exercise?

A Policy of Hellenization

What was the capital of the Seleucid Empire?

Antioch

What is the Septuagint?

A Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible developed for the large Jewish population living in Alexandria, Egypt.

Antiochus III defeated Egypt, and Israel came under Seleucid control in what year?

198BC

What two factions developed among the Jews under the Seleucids?

the House of Onias and the House of Tobias

What power did the House of Onias favor?

Egypt

What power did the House of Tobias favor?

Syria

Who was Antiocus Epiphanies?

very corrupt king of the Seleucid Empire who committed the Abomination of Desolation

What was the Abomination of Desolation?

when Antiocus Epiphanies desecrated the Temple in December 167BC by erecting an altar in the Holy of Holies and sacrificing pigs to Zeus

What were Jews who apposed the paganization of their culture called?

the "Hasidim"

When was the Maccabean revolt?

167-164BC

Who was Mattathias?

An old priest from Modein who sparked the Maccabean rebellion by refusing to sacrifice to the Greek gods, killing the Jew who tried to, and attacking the Seleucid messenger who told him to.

What were the Jews fighting for in the Maccabean Revolt?

religious and political freedom

How did the Jews fight in the Maccabean Revolt?

They used guerilla warfare

Who was Judah?

Mattathias's son who took over leadership of the revolt, recaptured (and restored) the Temple in Jerusalem

How did Judah die?

He was assassinated during peace talks with Assyria

Who takes over as leader when Judah dies?

Judah's brother Jonathan

Why was it bad that Jonathan was appointed high priest?

He wasn't a Levite, and he was already the political ruler.

How does Jonathan die?

He's assassinated

Who takes over as leader when Jonathan dies?

Jonathan's brother Simon

Who was the first Hasmonean king who established the Hasmonean Dynasty?

Simon, (Mattathias's son and Jonathan and Judah's brother)

Why was being the king and the high priest a bad thing?

God had commanded Israel not to combine the positions

Where can we find the story of the Maccabean Revolt today?

1 Maccabees and 2 Maccabees

When was the Hasmonean Period?

143BC-63BC

Who was Alexandra Salome?

the only Jewish queen of the Intertestamental Period

Why couldn't Alexandra be high priest?

Because she was a woman

Who did Alexandra appoint as high priest?

Her son, Hyrcanus II

Who challenges Hyrcanus II's claim to the throne when Alexandra dies?

His brother, Aristobulus II

In what year does Pompey conquer Jerusalem?

63BC

What does Pompey's conquest of Jerusalem signal?

The end of Jewish independence

Who does Pompey make his puppet ruler?

Hyrcanus II

What happens to Aristoblus II?

He's taken to Rome as a prisoner

What's the miracle of Hannakuh? (typical answer)

oil for one day lasted eight days

What's the miracle of Hannakuh? (Dr. Rabinowitz's answer)

How God helped a little rag-tag group of gys fight off (and beat!) one of the toughest armies around

What are six things the Maccabean Revolt did for the Jewish nation?

rescued them from political/religious destruction, sowed seeds for corruption of high pristesthood, stirred spirit of unity/Jewish nationalism, rekindled Messianic expectations, precipitated development of Sadducees and Pharisees, and renewed domination by a foreign power.

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