AP European History Review

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The Glorious Revolution

Revolt in England where both political parties (the whigs and Tors) offered the throne jointly to James II's daughter Mary and her husband William of Orange. Parliament kicked out James II showing that Parliament is the one with the power.

Toleration Act of 1689

Law in England in 1689 which gave religious tolerance to everyone except Catholics and Jews, for them the policy was don't ask don't tell.

James II

British monarch who reigned for three years, and was disliked because was Catholic and favored Catholics. The birth of his son (catholic) caused England to call for William & Mary (protestants).

Long Parliament (November 1640)

Wished to remove Wentworth 'the evil counsellor' and it became more about what he might do rather than what he did as he knew Pym and others were in touch with the Covenanters. Worried that Wentworth might use Irish forces to overthrow parliament, Pym used the act of Attainder which declared the Earl a traitor and after the Kings' failed army plot he was forced to sign off on it

Oliver Cromwell

English military, political, and Puritan figure who led the Parliament's (Roundhead) victory in the English Civil War (1642-1649) and called for the execution of Charles I. As Lord, Protector of England (1653-1658) he ruled as a dictator and also disbanded Parliament.

English Revolution

A civil war that broke out between those who supported Parliament and thse that supported the King. Parliament won and set up a commonwealth.

The Fronde

A French rebellion that was caused by Mazarin's attempt to increase royal revenue and expand state bureaucracy; caused Louis XIV to distrust the state and turn to absolutism

Charles I

English monarch who caused more problems with Parliament, and was eventually presented with the Petition of Rights which he didn't sign and refused to call Parliament for eleven years (used ship money to do this) The people viewed this monarch as too catholic. Kicked off throne and executed.

James I

English monarch who established the Stuart Dynasty, who favored absolutism over cooperation. Was angry at Parliaments control and so fought with them the entire time. Believed in divine right of king, and had pro-catholic sympathies.

Petition of Rights

A habeas corpus law in England, which asked for the end of taxation without consent of Parliament and for the King to stop the practice of declaring martial law in peacetime. Would cause Parliament to share power with the king.

Roundheads

A group consisting of Puritans, country land owners, and town based manufacturers, led by Oliver Cromwell; fought against, and defeated the Cavaliers during the English Civil War.

Cavaliers

In the English Civil War (1642-1647), these were the troops loyal to Charles I. They were defeated and King Charles I was beheaded.

Ship Money

An impost levied in England to provide money for ships for national defense

Cardinal Richelieu

(1585-1642) Favorite of the French king Louis XIII

Duke of Buckingham

Duke of Buckingham and Normanby was a title in the Peerage of England. The full title was Duke of the County of Buckingham and of Normanby but in practice only Duke of Buckingham and Normanby was used. The dukedom was created in 1703 for John Sheffield, 1st Marquess of Normanby KG, a notable Tory politician of the late Stuart period, who served under Queen Anne as Lord Privy Seal and Lord President of the Council. He had succeeded his father as 3rd Earl of Mulgrave in 1658 and been made Marquess of Normanby in 1694.

Count-Duke Olivares

Phillip IV of Spain left his federal kingdoms to Gaspard de Guzman, Count-Duke of Olivares. Olivares was an able minister. He did not lack energy and ideas; he devised new sources of revenue. However, he clung to the grandiose belief that the solution to Spain's difficulties rested in imperial tradition. Unfortunately, the imperial demanded the revival of the war with the Dutch at the expiration of a twelve-year truce in 1622 and a long war with France over Mantua (1628-1659). Spain thus became embroiled in the Thirty Years' War. These conflicts, on top of an empty treasury, brought disaster. (547-548)

La Paulette

La Paulette after the financier Charles Paulet, who proposed it) was the name commonly given to the "annual right" (droit annuel), a special tax levied by the French Crown during the Ancien Régime. Originally under the terms of the Paulette, the holders of various government and judicial offices could secure the right to transfer their office at will by annually paying the Crown one sixtieth of the value of their office.

Millones

The Millones were an indirect tax on food in Spain in the 16th and 17th centuries. The tax was initially intended in 1590 as a temporary measure to replace the Spanish Armada lost in attacking England. It was originally levied on the cuatro especies of wine, meat, olive oil, and vinegar.

William Shakespeare

William Shakespeare was an English poet and playwright, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.[1] He is often called England's national poet and the "Bard of Avon".

Divine Right of Kings

The belief that the authority of kings comes directly from God. Used by Kings James I and Charles I to justify decisions that were unpopular, but this ultimately did not help them because it turned Parliament and their people against them and caused the English Civil War.

Peter I

Also known as Peter the Great; son of Alexis Romanov; ruled from 1689 to 1725; continued growth of absolutism and conquest; included more definite interest in changing selected aspects of economy and culture through imitation of western European models.

Cardinal Mazarin

(1602-1661) Italian-born French cardinal who exercised great political influence as the tutor and chief minister to Louis XIV

Jean Baptiste-Colbert

Louis XIV's controller of finances; followed mercantilism; raised tariffs on foreign goods; created a merchant marine to carry French goods

Marquis de Louvois

He was the minister of the military when Louis XIV ruled, he created a very organized and one of the most powerful armies. He also created many more ranks in the armies, and he got rid of the idea of that you had to be part of a certain family to fight.

Louis XIV of France

"Sun King," he believed in divine right and was a devout catholic. He feared the nobility and was successful in collaborating with them to enhance both aristocratic prestige and royal power. He made the court of Versailles a fixed institution to use it to preserve royal power and the center of French Absolutism.

Nu Pieds

Known as the barefooted people who rose against changes in salt tax and wine tax in France

Bread Riots

French women went to Versailles for food. Arrested Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette

Pugachev

(1742-1775) A Cossack, army deserter from the southeast frontier region of Russia who claimed to be Peter III, the dead husband of Catherine II. People rallied around him in hopes that he would be a "redeemed tsar" who could save them from oppression. A rebellion occurred which ended in the death of hundreds of noble families and, finally, his arrest, torture, and execution.

John Wilkes

A member of Parliament during the reign of George III. He attacked the government in his newspaper, North Briton, and sued the crown when he was arrested. He won and was released and given damages, but when he was reelected Parliament refused to give him his seat. This controversy sparked public protest in his favor and people began to consider the need for reform in Parliament.

Gordon Riots (1780)

Marches and campaigns against the bill passed by the House of Commons which granted limited toleration to Catholics. Named after an anti-catholic crusader who helped organize them. The seven-day riots left fifty buildings destroyed and 300 people dead.

Frederick II "the Great"

(Ruled 1740-1786) King of Prussia. Invaded Austria, sparking the War of the Austrian Succession, in which he gained Silesia; invaded Saxony, sparking the Seven Years War, but did not gain any territory; he spent 2/3rds of all Prussian money on the army; proposed the First Partition of Poland, from which he gained a bit of Polish-Lithuanian territory; insisted his court spoke French; was personal friends with Voltaire; instituted a uniform civil justice system; believed strongly in education; encourage agricultural innovation. (Example of an enlightened despot.)

Maria Theresa

(Ruled 1740-1780) Daughter of Charled VI, who's inheritance of the Austrian throne sparked the War of the Austrian Succession. She survived the war only by giving Silesia to Frederick II of Prussia. Became heiress of Austria and her husband became Holy Roman Emperor. Mother of Joseph II.

Joseph II

(Ruled 1780-1790) Son of Maria Theresa; Holy Roman Emperor of Austria. Ordered a new unified code of laws; applauded suppression of the Jesuits; required Austrian bishops to swear submission to him;launched ambitious educational reforms; pushed for religious toleration; tried to remove the burdens of serfdom in his lands; and encourage agricultural innovation. (Most of his reforms fell apart after his death; resistant nobles pushed his brother to revoke them.) (Example of an enlightened despot.)

Turgot

(1727-1781) A physiocrat disciple chosen as a chief minister by Louis XVI. He was a contributor to the Encyclopedia, and as minister he freed the grain trade, suppressed guilds, converted peasant's forced road labor to a tax payed by all landlords, and reduced court expenses. He was dismissed when Louis felt resistance from parlements and his courtiers.

Enlightened Despots

Historians' term for the enlightened absolutists of the time. They aimed to promote Enlightenment without giving up their absolutist powers.

Physiocrats

A group of economists who urged the French government to deregulate the grain trade and make the tax system more equitable to encourage agricultural productivity. Claimed guilds should be abolished in order to establish a free market and strongly influenced Adam Smith.

War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748)

War over the control of Austria due to the fact that Charles VI left Maria Theresa (a girl) as heir to the throne. Frederick II of Prussia invaded due to a want for Silesia and France helped him in order to humiliate their enemy (Austria.) Great Britain allied with Austria to prevent France from gaining more land. The colonies of F and GB began to fight also. Austria gave Silesia to Prussia and the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle ended the war.

Pragmatic Sanction (1713)

HRE Charles VI of Austria's agreement with the European rulers that his daughter Maria Theresa would inherit his throne because he had no male heir.

Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748)

The peace treaty which ended the War of the Austrian Succession. Recognizes Maria Theresa as heiress of Austria and her husband as HRE. Prussia got Silesia, but colonial fighting between Britain and France continued even after the war ended.

Diplomatic Revolution (1756)

A major reversal of alliances. Prussia and Great Britain signed a defensive alliance which caused Austria and France to ally despite their past. Russia and Sweden joined the Franco-Austrian Alliance.

Seven Years War (1756-1763)

(Could be called the first World War.) Prussia's well trained army invaded Saxony. (An Ally of Austria.) This caused France and GB to be mad at each other over their colonies again for some reason so they start fighting. Those two fought in North America (its called the French and Indian War) and in the West Indies, India, and central Europe. Prussia was losing until the Russian tsar died and a pro-Prussian one withdrew Russia from the Franco-Austrian alliance. Prussia got to keep all the territory, including Silesia which he won earlier. Britain and France ended their fighting with the Treaty of Paris.

Peace of Paris (1763)

The end of the fighting between Great Britain and France during the 7 years war. France gave Canada and India to Great Britain but kept the West Indies. (Later resulted in France's support of the American colonies for independence from Britain.)

First Partition of Poland (1772)

Frederick the Great proposed that large chunks of Polish-Lithuania be divided among Austria, Prussia, and Russia. It was divided in three.

Silesia

The piece of Austrian territory that Frederick the Great of Prussia tried to seize during the War of the Austrian Succession.

Mozart

(1756-1791) An Austrian composer famous for his string quartets. Wrote for noble patrons but his works were also performed in concert halls and published many Italian Operas.

Haydn

(1732-1809) An Austrian composer who wrote more than 100 symphonies. Wrote for noble patrons but his works were also performed in concert halls. Wrote Italian operas and worked mainly for the Eszterhazy Family.

game laws

Laws endorsed by the British nobility to ensure that hunting was a special right of the rich. Anyone who did not followed these laws could be sentenced to death.

bourgeoisie

The middle-class. From the french word bourgeois, meaning city dweller.

Freemasons

Members of "Masonic Lodges", or social clubs organized around elaborate secret rituals of stonemasons' guilds. Named because this was the term given to apprentice masons once they became masters.

neo-classical style

Greek style which put an emphasis on purity and the clarity of forms.

Catherine "the Great"

(Ruled 1762-1796 after death of her husband) Tsarina of Russia who added new lands to the country, encouraged science, art, lierature, and led Russia to become one of Europe's most powerful nations.

Rousseau

(1712-1778) Believed that society threatened natural rights and freedoms. Wrote about society's corruption caused by the revival of sciences and art instead of it's improvement. He was sponsored by the wealthy and participated in salons but often felt uncomfortable and denounced them. Wrote "The Social Contract."

Diderot

(1713-1784) The chief editor of the Encyclopedia published between 1751-1772. Said that "All things must be examined, debated, investigated without exception and without regard to one's feelings." and "We will speak against senseless laws until they are reformed; and, while we wait, we will abide by them."

Madame de Geoffrin

(1699-1777) A wealthy middle-class widow who hosted a famous Parisian salon. She created the salon to educate herself and to participate directly in the movement for reform. Brought together the most exciting thinkers and artists of the time and corresponded with influential people across Europe.

Adam Smith

(1723-1790) Believed that individual interests naturally harmonized with the interests of the whole society. Published "An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations." Rejected mercantilism and endorsed the concept of "laissez-faire." Claimed the gov't should focus solely on protection.

Goethe

(1749-1832) A young German writer who published "The Sorrows of Young Werther" in 1774. It was a good example of Romanticism and became a popular novel, inspiring costumes, engravings, embroidery, etc.

Wesley

(1703-1791) An Oxford-educated son of an Angelican cleric who founded Methodism. He preached the new brand of Protestantism, slept in followers homes, claimed to heal illnesses and was disturbing to Angelican authorities.

philosophes

The writers of the Enlightenment Movement. French word meaning philosophers but these were public intellectuals dedicated to solving the real problems of the world.

Encyclopedia

A collaboration of many Enlightenment writers that aimed to gather together knowledge about science, religion, industry, and society.

salons

Informal gatherings, usually sponsored by middle-class or aristocratic women. Provided a forum for new ideas and gave intellectual life an anchor outside the royal court and church-controlled universities.

laissez faire

Means "hands off" in French. Smith's claim that there should be a government-free economy.

The Wealth of Nations

A book published by Adam Smith in 1776. Insisted that individual self-interest, even greed, was compatible with society's best interests. Claimed an "invisible hand" of supply and demand naturally brought both interests in line.

The Social Contract

Book by Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Argued that the right kind of political order could allow people to be truly moral and free; an individual can achieve freedom by giving up their freedom for the good of the community.

romanticism

A new artistic movement of the Enlightenment. Emphasized individual genius, deep emotion, and the joys of nature.

Methodism

A religion founded by John Wesley. Insisted strict self-discipline and a methodical approach to religious study and observance. Emphasized an intense personal salvation and a life of thrift, abstinence, and hard work.

Hobbes

(1588-1679) An English royalist who tutored the future King Charles II in France during the English Civil War. He wrote Leviathan and argued in favor of absolute monarchy due to the evil state of nature of humans. Angered other royalists and supporters of Parliament.

Locke

(1632-1704) An English physician, secretary, and intellectual companion to the Earl of Shaftsbury who used the notion of a social contract to provide a foundation for constitutionalism. He wrote "Two Treatises of Government" and "Essay Concerning Human Understanding," was anti-absolutist, and believed people had a gentle state of nature.

Newton

(1642-1727) An English natural philosopher who studied at Cambridge and eventually developed the laws of movement found among the bodies of Earth. Spent his life dedicated to the study of mathematics (created calculus) and optics. Published Principia Mathematica and discovered the law of universal gravitation.

Leibniz

(1646-1716) A lawyer, diplomat, mathematician, and scholar who claimed he invented calculus, not Newton. Helped establish scientific societies in German states, and wrote about metaphysics, cosmology, and history.

social contract

The doctrine found in the writings of Hobbes and Locke that all political authority derives not from divine right but from an implicit contract between citizens and their rulers.

Leviathan

Written by Thomas Hobbes, this argued in favor of unlimited authority in a ruler. Claimed that due to the evil nature of humans a King or a Parliament needed un-shared, complete power; the people need to give up freedoms for the overall safety of the community.

"nasty brutish and short"

A quote from Hobbes about the state of human nature. Shows that he thinks without a ruler with absolute authority, life would be terrible and savage.

Two Treatises of Government

Published in 1690 by Locke, these served to justify the Glorious Revolution of 1688.

"life liberty and property"

Locke's main idea about government. He thought this was their only duty and the rest should be left to a governing body of men who owned land.

Essay Concerning Human Understanding

An essay by John Locke. Asserted that humans are born with a "tabula rasa" or a blank slate. Everything humans know comes from experience, not initial nature.

Principia Mathematica

Newton's publication of a collection of his most significant mathematical and mechanical discoveries.

calculus

The new type of mathematics of moving bodies discovered by Newton.

Royal Academy of Sciences

A group established in Paris by Colbert, which supplied government stipends to 15 scientists who devoted themselves to alchemy experiments and the study of mechanical devices.

Royal Society of London

The English counter part to the scientific organization in Paris. Grew out of informal meetings in London and Oxford and worked on government-independent projects like the Publication of Newton's Principia.

Law of Universal Gravitation

Newton's claim that every body in the universe exerts a force over every other body directly proportional to its mass. Proved by three fundamental physical laws: 1) In the absence of force, motion continues in a straight line. 2) The rate of change in the motion of an object is a result of the forces acting on it. 3) The action and reaction between two objects are equal and opposite.

Bayle

(1647-1706) A French Huguenot refugee who launched an international campaign against religious intolerance. He wrote "News from the Republic of Letters, which criticized Louis XIV but later focused on toleration all over Europe with the Historical and Critical Dictionary, which pointed out the errors in past writings of religion.

Voltaire

(1694-1778) An upper middle class Frenchman who was inspired by Bayle. He wrote Letters concerning the English Nation which attacked Catholic bigotry in France by highlighting the advantages of England. He gained extreme fame by popularizing Newton's scientific discoveries in his book "Elements of the Philosophy of Newton."

Montesquieu

(1689-1755) A high ranking French judge who published a book anonymously in the Dutch Republic called Persian Letters. A fictional story about two lovers who travel around Europe offering both serious and satirical opinions about the governments they saw in comparison with France's. Followed Locke's ideas and believed climate effected people's nature.

Montaigne

(1533-1592) A French magistrate who resigned his office in the midst of the wars of religion to write about the need for tolerance. A catholic who emphasized skepticism and tolerance in religion and race.

Bodin

(1530-1596) A French Catholic Lawyer who sought out the problem to disorder in his "Six Books of the Republic" He compared the different types of governments and decided that an absolute monarchy is necessary. (No matter how horrible a tyrant the ruler is.)

Grotius

(1583-1645) A jurist who claimed natural law meant laws of nature that would exist without God or any authority figure. Catholics and Protestants despised his ideas and his book The Laws of War and Peace was condemned. He was arrested but escaped and supported by Louis XIII.

Copernicus

(1473-1543) A Polish clergyman who began the revolution in astronomy by publishing his treatise on The Revolution of the Celestial Spheres. He claimed the Earth and the planets revolved around the sun which had a simpler mathematical explanation.

Brahe

(1546-1601) A Danish astronomer who designed and built new instruments for observing the heavens and trained many other astronomers. He rejected heliocentrism despite his discovery of a new star and comet that disproved Aristotle's theory.

Kepler

(1571-1630) Assistant to Tycho Brahe who believed in the Copernican view. He continued Brahe's observations and created three laws of planetary motion published between 1609 and 1619. They provided mathematical backing for heliocentrism and suggested that the planets orbits were ellipses.

Galileo

(1564-1642) An Italian who provided more evidence for heliocentrism and questioned if the heavens really were perfect. He invented a new telescope, studied the sky, and published what he discovered. Because his work provided evidence that the Bible was wrong he was arrested and ended up on house arrest for the rest of his life.

Gregorian Calender

The new calender ordered by Pope XIII who wanted the Easter Holiday to be celebrated at the correct time every year. It was very controversial and took a very long time to be adopted by all the countries. It is the calender we use today.

Scientific Method

A combination of experimental observation and mathematical deduction to determine the laws of nature; it became the secular standard of truth and as such challenged the hold of all churches and popular beliefs.

Heliocentrism

The idea that the Earth and the planets revolve around the sun. It was previously believed that everything revolved around the Earth.

Discourse on Method

Written by Descartes, this argued that mathematical and mechanical principals provided the key to understanding all of nature. Emphasized the use of human reasoning, not just believing what you're told.

Vesalius

(1514-1564) A Flemish scientist who challenged traditional anatomy with his text "On the Construction of the Human Body." Created with numerous illustrations of public dissections.

Paracelsus

(1493-1541) AKA Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim. A professor of medicine at the University of Basel who burned the texts of Galen. He experimented with new drugs, performed operations, and helped establish the modern science of pharmacology.

Harvey

(1578-1657) An Englishman who used dissection to examine the circulation of blood throughout the body and how the heart worked as a pump. He insisted the heart and its valves were a piece of machinery that obeyed mechanical laws.

Bacon

(1561-1626) An English politician responsible for spreading the scientific method. Wrote The Advancement of Learning. (He claimed old authors were wrong because they were often monks and their texts were not based on observation of the outside world.)

Descartes

(1596-1650) A French mathematician and philosopher responsible for spreading the scientific method. Wrote Discourse on Method. (Claimed that mathematical and mechanical principals provided the key to understanding all of nature.) Je pense, donc je suis.

Charles II (Spain)

The mentally and physically feeble monarch of Spain from 1665-1700. His death sparked the War of the Spanish Succession because most of Europe did not want the French Duke of Anjou to inherit the country.

Louis XV

Ruled 1715-1774. The great-grandson of Louis XIV who inherited the throne at age five. His regent was the king's nephew, the duke of Orleans. Ruled during a small time of French prosperity.

Cardinal Fleury

(1653-1743) Cardinal appointed by Louis XV's regent. He balanced the budget and carried out plans for road and canal construction. Colonial trade boomed and France accepted limits on territorial expansion.

Walpole

(1676-1745) George I and George III relied on him to help manage their relations with Parliament. Technically the first Prime Minister of the UK. He led the House of Commons and dispensed government jobs to win support for the Crown's policies. Helped develop a cabinet which the US and UK cabinets are based on today.

Peter the Great

Ruled 1689-1725. The tsar of Russian that is known for dragging Russian "kicking and screaming" into a westernized civilization. He transformed public life in Russia through dress, buildings, businesses, and knowledge and set up an absolutist government.

Prince Alexei

Son of Peter the Great. Opposed his father's transformation of Russia and was, therefore, throne into jail where he "mysteriously died."

Fredrick William I

King of Prussia from 1713-1740. Famous for his intensely trained and very large army. During his rule he nearly doubled it's size and pushed it to become the best trained force in Europe.

Jenner

An English Physician who, in 1796, created an inoculation against small pox. The serum was based on cow pox, a milder form of the disease.

Hanover Family

The German family who succeeded to the English throne after the death of William III. Changed their name to Windsor during WWI but still sits on the throne today.

Jacobitism

The support of many in Scottland and Ireland for the Stuart Family line. Rebelled for James II's son and grandson to be back on the British throne.

Holy Synod

The replacement Peter the Great created for the office of Patriarch of the Russian Orthodox Church. It was a "bureaucracy of laymen under his supervision."

War of the Spanish Succession (1701-1714)

The war that resulted from the heirless death of Charles II; in order to prevent the union of the French and Spanish crowns (Philip of Anjou was handpicked to be heir), the Grand Alliance declared war on France to stop a possible universal monarchy.

Peace of Utrecht (1714)

End of the War of the Spanish Succession. Phillip was recognized as King of Spain as long as he agreed to renounce any claim to the French throne. Spain lost territories in Italy, Netherlands, and Gibraltar, and France lost territories in North America. (They were gained by Austria and Britain.)

Act of Union (1707)

The act agreed to by Scottish Protestant leaders which abolished the Scottish Parliament, affirmed recognition of the Hanoverian succession, and said the Scots were to obey the British Parliament.

Great Northern War (1701-1721)

Russia (Peter the Great) attacked Sweden (Charles XII) with assistance from Poland and Denmark. After being destroyed initially, Peter re-organized his army on the western model and crushes Sweden in the Battle of Poltava. Gained Estonia, Livonia, and Karella on the Balti with the Treay of Nystad.

War of the Polish Succession (1733-1735)

War fought when France and Russia want their guys on the Polish Throne. France/Spain vs Russia/Austria. Russian candidate, Augustus III, wins.

St. Petersburg

The new capitol of Russia built by and named after tsar Peter the Great. He hired skilled foreigners and forced over 40,000 workers a year to build it.

Bach

(1685-1750) A famous German-Lutheran composer of organ fugues and church cantatas. Lived in Leipzig, and wrote St. Mathew Passion Coffee Cantata. Worked privately for the church and publicly.

Handel

(1685-1759) A German composer who wrote Operas in Italy and eventually moved to Britain. Wrote music for the court and also oratorios such as Messiah (1741). Famous for incorporating religious piety with public pleasing drama.

Defoe

(1660-1731) An English merchant's son who had many careers. (Manufacturer, political spy, novelist, and social commentator.) Wrote many things but most famous for novels: Robinson Crusoe and Moll Flanders.

Agricultural Revolution

Constituted by many new farming techniques, this aggressive attitude toward investment and management was the major increase in production of produce in Britain and other European countries.

enclosure

Large lots of land fenced off by big landowners. Created from land pressured out of the hands of smaller farmers and peasants.

upper class lifestyle

Lives of fine food, extravagant clothing, coaches, novels, opera. Had many artisian, shopkeeper, and domestic servants as employees. More literate that all other social classes; read many novels and newspapers, attended operas and concerts; socialized at cafes Lived in wide, airy streets.

middle class lifestyle

Class of officials, merchants, professionals, and landowners.Lived primarily in cities and towns, ate moderate amounts of food, lived in houses of about 7 rooms decorated with mirrors and ornaments, owned coffee brewers, pictures, and clocks, and employed few servants. Lived in cleaner areas.

working class lifestyle

Class of artisans, shopkeepers, journeymen, apprentices, and lower servants and workers. Poorest people who were employed by others. Often worked as domestic servants, living in cramped, damp, and filthy streets. Wore drab clothing and were mostly illiterate. Could not afford to buy books or attend concerts.

rococo

A mild form of baroque painting. Consisted of everyday scenes of sensuality, personal portraits, and pastoral paintings. Could be found in ordinary homes as well as palaces. Degradingly named as "frivolous decoration."

Pietists

Believed in a mystical religion of the heart; wanted a deeply emotional religion. Urged intense Bible study which increased literacy. Appealed to Lutherans, Calvanists, and a few Catholics.

Atlantic System

The triangular pattern of trade that bound together western Europe, Africa, and the America's. Europeans bought slaves in Africa, sold them to their colonies, bought sugar and other products there, and sold them back in the main land.

Enlightenment

Movement during the 1700's that spread the idea that knowledge, reason, and science could improve society.

absolute monarchy

a sovereignty that was embodied solely by the monarch. e.g. Philip II, Henry IV

divine right

the responsibility of the king to God alone. In other words, the monarch is chosen directly by God to rule.

Henry IV

French King who revived France from economic, social, and religious turmoil. He promised a "chicken in every pot", and was one of very few monarchs who truly cared about his people. He converted to Catholicism to try to improve relations with the pope. He appointed Maximilien de Bethune, the duke of Sully, as his chief minister. He sharply lowered taxes on the peasant class and introduced a new yearly tax on government officers called the paulette. His issuing of the Edict of Nantes and the appointing of devout Protestant Sully were two of his major efforts in maintaining a relationship with Protestants.

Cardinal Richelieu

Real Name: Armand Jean du Plessis. president of the council of ministers, appointed by Marie de' Medici. First minister of the French crown. Exalted the French monarchy as the embodiment of the state. Set in place the cornerstone of French absolutism, served for the basis of French cultural dominance of Europe in the latter half of the seventeenth century.
Policy: Total subordination of all groups and organizations to the French monarchy; curb the power of the nobility;

Sovereign

a state that posesses a monopoly over the instruments of justice and the use of force within the state

administrative monarchy

term preferred by historians over absolutism, in referrence to the fact that the French state in the seventeenth century became stronger in that it could achieve more of its goals. It was centralized in Paris, and the administrative bureaucracy greatly expanded.

Totalitarianism

a term often mistakenly used in substitution for absolutism. In fact, this is a twentieth century phenomenon, which directs all facets of a state's culture, including are, education, religion, the economy, and politics. Definitively, this is a total regulation of the state by the government.

Sully

Real Name: Maximilien de Bethune, duke of this province of France by which he took his nickname from. He was the chief minister to Henry IV, and was a devout Protestant. He was a very effective administrator, as he revived French trade and increased French revenue, as he laid the economic foundation by which France was successful in the age of Henry IV.

Paulette

an annual tax that Henry IV imposed on royal officials to guarantee heredity in their offices.

Marie de' Medici

queen regent who served as ruler after the death of Henry IV before her son, Louis XIII became old enough to rule. She appointed Cardinal Richelieu to the council of ministers.

Louis XIII

son of Henry IV and Marie de' Medici. His rule was dominated by chief minister Cardinal Richelieu. He ended military and political independence for Protestants with unanimous support from the royal council; it was believed that this constituted a "state within a state"

Fronde

meaning slingshot or catapult in French; a series of civil wars between 1648-1653.

Frondeur

"a street urchin who threw mud at the passing carriages of the rich." Also came to mean anyone who opposed the policies of the government. Someone who participated in the Fronde

Mazarin

Italian diplomat, who was appointed by Louis XIII, to be the successor of Cardinal Richelieu, after Richelieu had convinced him to do so. He served on the council of the state under Cardinal Richelieu. He was unsuccessful at containing the civil wars in France, as well as subduing the nobility. First Name: Jules

Louis XIV

son of Louis XIII; represented the peak of absolutist development in France. He had the longest reign in French history. He was the self proclaimed "sun king", and he dominated his age. He brought France into the Grand Century, or the Age of Magnificance. He installed the royal court in Versailles. He popularized the French feeling of nationalism, where the French people were linked by language and culture, and began to refer to themselves as French. He used Versailles as a tool to undermine the noble class. The only weakness that he had as a king was in finance, where he appointed Jean Baptiste Colbert as the controller general of finances.

Colbert

named the controller general of finances by Louis XIV, he believed that the wealth and economy of France should serve the state. This idea came to be known later as mercantilism.

Mercantilism

collection of government policies for the regulation of economic activities, especially commerce, by and for the state. Based the wealth of the nation on its treasury of gold and silver.

Revocation of the Edict of Nantes

action in which Louis XIV revoked the liberty given to the French Huguenots by his grandfather, Henry IV. This ordered the destruction of Huguenot churches, schools, the Catholic baptism of Huguenots, and the exile of Huguenot priests who failed to renounce their faith.

French Classicism

the art and literature of the age of Louis XIV, artists of the late seventeenth century were deliberately imitating the subject matter and the style of classical antiquity; resembled Renaissance Italy, contained styles of discipline, balance, and restraint

Nicholas Poussin

generally considered the finest example of French Classicist painting. His most well known piece was "The Rape of the Sabine Women".

Lully

composer who was favored by Louis XIV in the French Classicist era, combined lively animation with restrained austerity typical of French Classicism. First name: Jean Baptiste

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