The Glorious Revolution
Revolt in England where both political parties (the whigs and Tors) offered the throne jointly to James II's daughter Mary and her husband William of Orange. Parliament kicked out James II showing that Parliament is the one with the power.
Toleration Act of 1689
Law in England in 1689 which gave religious tolerance to everyone except Catholics and Jews, for them the policy was don't ask don't tell.
British monarch who reigned for three years, and was disliked because was Catholic and favored Catholics. The birth of his son (catholic) caused England to call for William & Mary (protestants).
Long Parliament (November 1640)
Wished to remove Wentworth 'the evil counsellor' and it became more about what he might do rather than what he did as he knew Pym and others were in touch with the Covenanters. Worried that Wentworth might use Irish forces to overthrow parliament, Pym used the act of Attainder which declared the Earl a traitor and after the Kings' failed army plot he was forced to sign off on it
English military, political, and Puritan figure who led the Parliament's (Roundhead) victory in the English Civil War (1642-1649) and called for the execution of Charles I. As Lord, Protector of England (1653-1658) he ruled as a dictator and also disbanded Parliament.
A civil war that broke out between those who supported Parliament and thse that supported the King. Parliament won and set up a commonwealth.
A French rebellion that was caused by Mazarin's attempt to increase royal revenue and expand state bureaucracy; caused Louis XIV to distrust the state and turn to absolutism
English monarch who caused more problems with Parliament, and was eventually presented with the Petition of Rights which he didn't sign and refused to call Parliament for eleven years (used ship money to do this) The people viewed this monarch as too catholic. Kicked off throne and executed.
English monarch who established the Stuart Dynasty, who favored absolutism over cooperation. Was angry at Parliaments control and so fought with them the entire time. Believed in divine right of king, and had pro-catholic sympathies.
Petition of Rights
A habeas corpus law in England, which asked for the end of taxation without consent of Parliament and for the King to stop the practice of declaring martial law in peacetime. Would cause Parliament to share power with the king.
A group consisting of Puritans, country land owners, and town based manufacturers, led by Oliver Cromwell; fought against, and defeated the Cavaliers during the English Civil War.
In the English Civil War (1642-1647), these were the troops loyal to Charles I. They were defeated and King Charles I was beheaded.
An impost levied in England to provide money for ships for national defense
(1585-1642) Favorite of the French king Louis XIII
Duke of Buckingham
Duke of Buckingham and Normanby was a title in the Peerage of England. The full title was Duke of the County of Buckingham and of Normanby but in practice only Duke of Buckingham and Normanby was used. The dukedom was created in 1703 for John Sheffield, 1st Marquess of Normanby KG, a notable Tory politician of the late Stuart period, who served under Queen Anne as Lord Privy Seal and Lord President of the Council. He had succeeded his father as 3rd Earl of Mulgrave in 1658 and been made Marquess of Normanby in 1694.
Phillip IV of Spain left his federal kingdoms to Gaspard de Guzman, Count-Duke of Olivares. Olivares was an able minister. He did not lack energy and ideas; he devised new sources of revenue. However, he clung to the grandiose belief that the solution to Spain's difficulties rested in imperial tradition. Unfortunately, the imperial demanded the revival of the war with the Dutch at the expiration of a twelve-year truce in 1622 and a long war with France over Mantua (1628-1659). Spain thus became embroiled in the Thirty Years' War. These conflicts, on top of an empty treasury, brought disaster. (547-548)
La Paulette after the financier Charles Paulet, who proposed it) was the name commonly given to the "annual right" (droit annuel), a special tax levied by the French Crown during the Ancien Régime. Originally under the terms of the Paulette, the holders of various government and judicial offices could secure the right to transfer their office at will by annually paying the Crown one sixtieth of the value of their office.
The Millones were an indirect tax on food in Spain in the 16th and 17th centuries. The tax was initially intended in 1590 as a temporary measure to replace the Spanish Armada lost in attacking England. It was originally levied on the cuatro especies of wine, meat, olive oil, and vinegar.
William Shakespeare was an English poet and playwright, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's pre-eminent dramatist. He is often called England's national poet and the "Bard of Avon".
Divine Right of Kings
The belief that the authority of kings comes directly from God. Used by Kings James I and Charles I to justify decisions that were unpopular, but this ultimately did not help them because it turned Parliament and their people against them and caused the English Civil War.
Also known as Peter the Great; son of Alexis Romanov; ruled from 1689 to 1725; continued growth of absolutism and conquest; included more definite interest in changing selected aspects of economy and culture through imitation of western European models.
(1602-1661) Italian-born French cardinal who exercised great political influence as the tutor and chief minister to Louis XIV
Louis XIV's controller of finances; followed mercantilism; raised tariffs on foreign goods; created a merchant marine to carry French goods
Marquis de Louvois
He was the minister of the military when Louis XIV ruled, he created a very organized and one of the most powerful armies. He also created many more ranks in the armies, and he got rid of the idea of that you had to be part of a certain family to fight.
Louis XIV of France
"Sun King," he believed in divine right and was a devout catholic. He feared the nobility and was successful in collaborating with them to enhance both aristocratic prestige and royal power. He made the court of Versailles a fixed institution to use it to preserve royal power and the center of French Absolutism.
Known as the barefooted people who rose against changes in salt tax and wine tax in France
French women went to Versailles for food. Arrested Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette
(1742-1775) A Cossack, army deserter from the southeast frontier region of Russia who claimed to be Peter III, the dead husband of Catherine II. People rallied around him in hopes that he would be a "redeemed tsar" who could save them from oppression. A rebellion occurred which ended in the death of hundreds of noble families and, finally, his arrest, torture, and execution.
A member of Parliament during the reign of George III. He attacked the government in his newspaper, North Briton, and sued the crown when he was arrested. He won and was released and given damages, but when he was reelected Parliament refused to give him his seat. This controversy sparked public protest in his favor and people began to consider the need for reform in Parliament.
Gordon Riots (1780)
Marches and campaigns against the bill passed by the House of Commons which granted limited toleration to Catholics. Named after an anti-catholic crusader who helped organize them. The seven-day riots left fifty buildings destroyed and 300 people dead.
Frederick II "the Great"
(Ruled 1740-1786) King of Prussia. Invaded Austria, sparking the War of the Austrian Succession, in which he gained Silesia; invaded Saxony, sparking the Seven Years War, but did not gain any territory; he spent 2/3rds of all Prussian money on the army; proposed the First Partition of Poland, from which he gained a bit of Polish-Lithuanian territory; insisted his court spoke French; was personal friends with Voltaire; instituted a uniform civil justice system; believed strongly in education; encourage agricultural innovation. (Example of an enlightened despot.)
(Ruled 1740-1780) Daughter of Charled VI, who's inheritance of the Austrian throne sparked the War of the Austrian Succession. She survived the war only by giving Silesia to Frederick II of Prussia. Became heiress of Austria and her husband became Holy Roman Emperor. Mother of Joseph II.
(Ruled 1780-1790) Son of Maria Theresa; Holy Roman Emperor of Austria. Ordered a new unified code of laws; applauded suppression of the Jesuits; required Austrian bishops to swear submission to him;launched ambitious educational reforms; pushed for religious toleration; tried to remove the burdens of serfdom in his lands; and encourage agricultural innovation. (Most of his reforms fell apart after his death; resistant nobles pushed his brother to revoke them.) (Example of an enlightened despot.)
(1727-1781) A physiocrat disciple chosen as a chief minister by Louis XVI. He was a contributor to the Encyclopedia, and as minister he freed the grain trade, suppressed guilds, converted peasant's forced road labor to a tax payed by all landlords, and reduced court expenses. He was dismissed when Louis felt resistance from parlements and his courtiers.
Historians' term for the enlightened absolutists of the time. They aimed to promote Enlightenment without giving up their absolutist powers.
A group of economists who urged the French government to deregulate the grain trade and make the tax system more equitable to encourage agricultural productivity. Claimed guilds should be abolished in order to establish a free market and strongly influenced Adam Smith.
War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748)
War over the control of Austria due to the fact that Charles VI left Maria Theresa (a girl) as heir to the throne. Frederick II of Prussia invaded due to a want for Silesia and France helped him in order to humiliate their enemy (Austria.) Great Britain allied with Austria to prevent France from gaining more land. The colonies of F and GB began to fight also. Austria gave Silesia to Prussia and the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle ended the war.
Pragmatic Sanction (1713)
HRE Charles VI of Austria's agreement with the European rulers that his daughter Maria Theresa would inherit his throne because he had no male heir.
Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748)
The peace treaty which ended the War of the Austrian Succession. Recognizes Maria Theresa as heiress of Austria and her husband as HRE. Prussia got Silesia, but colonial fighting between Britain and France continued even after the war ended.
Diplomatic Revolution (1756)
A major reversal of alliances. Prussia and Great Britain signed a defensive alliance which caused Austria and France to ally despite their past. Russia and Sweden joined the Franco-Austrian Alliance.
Seven Years War (1756-1763)
(Could be called the first World War.) Prussia's well trained army invaded Saxony. (An Ally of Austria.) This caused France and GB to be mad at each other over their colonies again for some reason so they start fighting. Those two fought in North America (its called the French and Indian War) and in the West Indies, India, and central Europe. Prussia was losing until the Russian tsar died and a pro-Prussian one withdrew Russia from the Franco-Austrian alliance. Prussia got to keep all the territory, including Silesia which he won earlier. Britain and France ended their fighting with the Treaty of Paris.
Peace of Paris (1763)
The end of the fighting between Great Britain and France during the 7 years war. France gave Canada and India to Great Britain but kept the West Indies. (Later resulted in France's support of the American colonies for independence from Britain.)
First Partition of Poland (1772)
Frederick the Great proposed that large chunks of Polish-Lithuania be divided among Austria, Prussia, and Russia. It was divided in three.
The piece of Austrian territory that Frederick the Great of Prussia tried to seize during the War of the Austrian Succession.
(1756-1791) An Austrian composer famous for his string quartets. Wrote for noble patrons but his works were also performed in concert halls and published many Italian Operas.
(1732-1809) An Austrian composer who wrote more than 100 symphonies. Wrote for noble patrons but his works were also performed in concert halls. Wrote Italian operas and worked mainly for the Eszterhazy Family.
Laws endorsed by the British nobility to ensure that hunting was a special right of the rich. Anyone who did not followed these laws could be sentenced to death.
The middle-class. From the french word bourgeois, meaning city dweller.
Members of "Masonic Lodges", or social clubs organized around elaborate secret rituals of stonemasons' guilds. Named because this was the term given to apprentice masons once they became masters.
Greek style which put an emphasis on purity and the clarity of forms.
Catherine "the Great"
(Ruled 1762-1796 after death of her husband) Tsarina of Russia who added new lands to the country, encouraged science, art, lierature, and led Russia to become one of Europe's most powerful nations.
(1712-1778) Believed that society threatened natural rights and freedoms. Wrote about society's corruption caused by the revival of sciences and art instead of it's improvement. He was sponsored by the wealthy and participated in salons but often felt uncomfortable and denounced them. Wrote "The Social Contract."
(1713-1784) The chief editor of the Encyclopedia published between 1751-1772. Said that "All things must be examined, debated, investigated without exception and without regard to one's feelings." and "We will speak against senseless laws until they are reformed; and, while we wait, we will abide by them."
Madame de Geoffrin
(1699-1777) A wealthy middle-class widow who hosted a famous Parisian salon. She created the salon to educate herself and to participate directly in the movement for reform. Brought together the most exciting thinkers and artists of the time and corresponded with influential people across Europe.
(1723-1790) Believed that individual interests naturally harmonized with the interests of the whole society. Published "An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations." Rejected mercantilism and endorsed the concept of "laissez-faire." Claimed the gov't should focus solely on protection.
(1749-1832) A young German writer who published "The Sorrows of Young Werther" in 1774. It was a good example of Romanticism and became a popular novel, inspiring costumes, engravings, embroidery, etc.
(1703-1791) An Oxford-educated son of an Angelican cleric who founded Methodism. He preached the new brand of Protestantism, slept in followers homes, claimed to heal illnesses and was disturbing to Angelican authorities.
The writers of the Enlightenment Movement. French word meaning philosophers but these were public intellectuals dedicated to solving the real problems of the world.
A collaboration of many Enlightenment writers that aimed to gather together knowledge about science, religion, industry, and society.
Informal gatherings, usually sponsored by middle-class or aristocratic women. Provided a forum for new ideas and gave intellectual life an anchor outside the royal court and church-controlled universities.
Means "hands off" in French. Smith's claim that there should be a government-free economy.
The Wealth of Nations
A book published by Adam Smith in 1776. Insisted that individual self-interest, even greed, was compatible with society's best interests. Claimed an "invisible hand" of supply and demand naturally brought both interests in line.
The Social Contract
Book by Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Argued that the right kind of political order could allow people to be truly moral and free; an individual can achieve freedom by giving up their freedom for the good of the community.
A new artistic movement of the Enlightenment. Emphasized individual genius, deep emotion, and the joys of nature.
A religion founded by John Wesley. Insisted strict self-discipline and a methodical approach to religious study and observance. Emphasized an intense personal salvation and a life of thrift, abstinence, and hard work.
(1588-1679) An English royalist who tutored the future King Charles II in France during the English Civil War. He wrote Leviathan and argued in favor of absolute monarchy due to the evil state of nature of humans. Angered other royalists and supporters of Parliament.
(1632-1704) An English physician, secretary, and intellectual companion to the Earl of Shaftsbury who used the notion of a social contract to provide a foundation for constitutionalism. He wrote "Two Treatises of Government" and "Essay Concerning Human Understanding," was anti-absolutist, and believed people had a gentle state of nature.
(1642-1727) An English natural philosopher who studied at Cambridge and eventually developed the laws of movement found among the bodies of Earth. Spent his life dedicated to the study of mathematics (created calculus) and optics. Published Principia Mathematica and discovered the law of universal gravitation.
(1646-1716) A lawyer, diplomat, mathematician, and scholar who claimed he invented calculus, not Newton. Helped establish scientific societies in German states, and wrote about metaphysics, cosmology, and history.
The doctrine found in the writings of Hobbes and Locke that all political authority derives not from divine right but from an implicit contract between citizens and their rulers.
Written by Thomas Hobbes, this argued in favor of unlimited authority in a ruler. Claimed that due to the evil nature of humans a King or a Parliament needed un-shared, complete power; the people need to give up freedoms for the overall safety of the community.
"nasty brutish and short"
A quote from Hobbes about the state of human nature. Shows that he thinks without a ruler with absolute authority, life would be terrible and savage.
Two Treatises of Government
Published in 1690 by Locke, these served to justify the Glorious Revolution of 1688.
"life liberty and property"
Locke's main idea about government. He thought this was their only duty and the rest should be left to a governing body of men who owned land.
Essay Concerning Human Understanding
An essay by John Locke. Asserted that humans are born with a "tabula rasa" or a blank slate. Everything humans know comes from experience, not initial nature.
Newton's publication of a collection of his most significant mathematical and mechanical discoveries.
The new type of mathematics of moving bodies discovered by Newton.
Royal Academy of Sciences
A group established in Paris by Colbert, which supplied government stipends to 15 scientists who devoted themselves to alchemy experiments and the study of mechanical devices.
Royal Society of London
The English counter part to the scientific organization in Paris. Grew out of informal meetings in London and Oxford and worked on government-independent projects like the Publication of Newton's Principia.
Law of Universal Gravitation
Newton's claim that every body in the universe exerts a force over every other body directly proportional to its mass. Proved by three fundamental physical laws: 1) In the absence of force, motion continues in a straight line. 2) The rate of change in the motion of an object is a result of the forces acting on it. 3) The action and reaction between two objects are equal and opposite.
(1647-1706) A French Huguenot refugee who launched an international campaign against religious intolerance. He wrote "News from the Republic of Letters, which criticized Louis XIV but later focused on toleration all over Europe with the Historical and Critical Dictionary, which pointed out the errors in past writings of religion.
(1694-1778) An upper middle class Frenchman who was inspired by Bayle. He wrote Letters concerning the English Nation which attacked Catholic bigotry in France by highlighting the advantages of England. He gained extreme fame by popularizing Newton's scientific discoveries in his book "Elements of the Philosophy of Newton."
(1689-1755) A high ranking French judge who published a book anonymously in the Dutch Republic called Persian Letters. A fictional story about two lovers who travel around Europe offering both serious and satirical opinions about the governments they saw in comparison with France's. Followed Locke's ideas and believed climate effected people's nature.
(1533-1592) A French magistrate who resigned his office in the midst of the wars of religion to write about the need for tolerance. A catholic who emphasized skepticism and tolerance in religion and race.
(1530-1596) A French Catholic Lawyer who sought out the problem to disorder in his "Six Books of the Republic" He compared the different types of governments and decided that an absolute monarchy is necessary. (No matter how horrible a tyrant the ruler is.)
(1583-1645) A jurist who claimed natural law meant laws of nature that would exist without God or any authority figure. Catholics and Protestants despised his ideas and his book The Laws of War and Peace was condemned. He was arrested but escaped and supported by Louis XIII.
(1473-1543) A Polish clergyman who began the revolution in astronomy by publishing his treatise on The Revolution of the Celestial Spheres. He claimed the Earth and the planets revolved around the sun which had a simpler mathematical explanation.
(1546-1601) A Danish astronomer who designed and built new instruments for observing the heavens and trained many other astronomers. He rejected heliocentrism despite his discovery of a new star and comet that disproved Aristotle's theory.
(1571-1630) Assistant to Tycho Brahe who believed in the Copernican view. He continued Brahe's observations and created three laws of planetary motion published between 1609 and 1619. They provided mathematical backing for heliocentrism and suggested that the planets orbits were ellipses.
(1564-1642) An Italian who provided more evidence for heliocentrism and questioned if the heavens really were perfect. He invented a new telescope, studied the sky, and published what he discovered. Because his work provided evidence that the Bible was wrong he was arrested and ended up on house arrest for the rest of his life.
The new calender ordered by Pope XIII who wanted the Easter Holiday to be celebrated at the correct time every year. It was very controversial and took a very long time to be adopted by all the countries. It is the calender we use today.
A combination of experimental observation and mathematical deduction to determine the laws of nature; it became the secular standard of truth and as such challenged the hold of all churches and popular beliefs.
The idea that the Earth and the planets revolve around the sun. It was previously believed that everything revolved around the Earth.
Discourse on Method
Written by Descartes, this argued that mathematical and mechanical principals provided the key to understanding all of nature. Emphasized the use of human reasoning, not just believing what you're told.
(1514-1564) A Flemish scientist who challenged traditional anatomy with his text "On the Construction of the Human Body." Created with numerous illustrations of public dissections.
(1493-1541) AKA Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim. A professor of medicine at the University of Basel who burned the texts of Galen. He experimented with new drugs, performed operations, and helped establish the modern science of pharmacology.
(1578-1657) An Englishman who used dissection to examine the circulation of blood throughout the body and how the heart worked as a pump. He insisted the heart and its valves were a piece of machinery that obeyed mechanical laws.
(1561-1626) An English politician responsible for spreading the scientific method. Wrote The Advancement of Learning. (He claimed old authors were wrong because they were often monks and their texts were not based on observation of the outside world.)
(1596-1650) A French mathematician and philosopher responsible for spreading the scientific method. Wrote Discourse on Method. (Claimed that mathematical and mechanical principals provided the key to understanding all of nature.) Je pense, donc je suis.
Charles II (Spain)
The mentally and physically feeble monarch of Spain from 1665-1700. His death sparked the War of the Spanish Succession because most of Europe did not want the French Duke of Anjou to inherit the country.
Ruled 1715-1774. The great-grandson of Louis XIV who inherited the throne at age five. His regent was the king's nephew, the duke of Orleans. Ruled during a small time of French prosperity.
(1653-1743) Cardinal appointed by Louis XV's regent. He balanced the budget and carried out plans for road and canal construction. Colonial trade boomed and France accepted limits on territorial expansion.
(1676-1745) George I and George III relied on him to help manage their relations with Parliament. Technically the first Prime Minister of the UK. He led the House of Commons and dispensed government jobs to win support for the Crown's policies. Helped develop a cabinet which the US and UK cabinets are based on today.
Peter the Great
Ruled 1689-1725. The tsar of Russian that is known for dragging Russian "kicking and screaming" into a westernized civilization. He transformed public life in Russia through dress, buildings, businesses, and knowledge and set up an absolutist government.
Son of Peter the Great. Opposed his father's transformation of Russia and was, therefore, throne into jail where he "mysteriously died."
Fredrick William I
King of Prussia from 1713-1740. Famous for his intensely trained and very large army. During his rule he nearly doubled it's size and pushed it to become the best trained force in Europe.
An English Physician who, in 1796, created an inoculation against small pox. The serum was based on cow pox, a milder form of the disease.
The German family who succeeded to the English throne after the death of William III. Changed their name to Windsor during WWI but still sits on the throne today.
The support of many in Scottland and Ireland for the Stuart Family line. Rebelled for James II's son and grandson to be back on the British throne.
The replacement Peter the Great created for the office of Patriarch of the Russian Orthodox Church. It was a "bureaucracy of laymen under his supervision."
War of the Spanish Succession (1701-1714)
The war that resulted from the heirless death of Charles II; in order to prevent the union of the French and Spanish crowns (Philip of Anjou was handpicked to be heir), the Grand Alliance declared war on France to stop a possible universal monarchy.
Peace of Utrecht (1714)
End of the War of the Spanish Succession. Phillip was recognized as King of Spain as long as he agreed to renounce any claim to the French throne. Spain lost territories in Italy, Netherlands, and Gibraltar, and France lost territories in North America. (They were gained by Austria and Britain.)
Act of Union (1707)
The act agreed to by Scottish Protestant leaders which abolished the Scottish Parliament, affirmed recognition of the Hanoverian succession, and said the Scots were to obey the British Parliament.
Great Northern War (1701-1721)
Russia (Peter the Great) attacked Sweden (Charles XII) with assistance from Poland and Denmark. After being destroyed initially, Peter re-organized his army on the western model and crushes Sweden in the Battle of Poltava. Gained Estonia, Livonia, and Karella on the Balti with the Treay of Nystad.
War of the Polish Succession (1733-1735)
War fought when France and Russia want their guys on the Polish Throne. France/Spain vs Russia/Austria. Russian candidate, Augustus III, wins.
The new capitol of Russia built by and named after tsar Peter the Great. He hired skilled foreigners and forced over 40,000 workers a year to build it.
(1685-1750) A famous German-Lutheran composer of organ fugues and church cantatas. Lived in Leipzig, and wrote St. Mathew Passion Coffee Cantata. Worked privately for the church and publicly.
(1685-1759) A German composer who wrote Operas in Italy and eventually moved to Britain. Wrote music for the court and also oratorios such as Messiah (1741). Famous for incorporating religious piety with public pleasing drama.
(1660-1731) An English merchant's son who had many careers. (Manufacturer, political spy, novelist, and social commentator.) Wrote many things but most famous for novels: Robinson Crusoe and Moll Flanders.
Constituted by many new farming techniques, this aggressive attitude toward investment and management was the major increase in production of produce in Britain and other European countries.
Large lots of land fenced off by big landowners. Created from land pressured out of the hands of smaller farmers and peasants.
upper class lifestyle
Lives of fine food, extravagant clothing, coaches, novels, opera. Had many artisian, shopkeeper, and domestic servants as employees. More literate that all other social classes; read many novels and newspapers, attended operas and concerts; socialized at cafes Lived in wide, airy streets.
middle class lifestyle
Class of officials, merchants, professionals, and landowners.Lived primarily in cities and towns, ate moderate amounts of food, lived in houses of about 7 rooms decorated with mirrors and ornaments, owned coffee brewers, pictures, and clocks, and employed few servants. Lived in cleaner areas.
working class lifestyle
Class of artisans, shopkeepers, journeymen, apprentices, and lower servants and workers. Poorest people who were employed by others. Often worked as domestic servants, living in cramped, damp, and filthy streets. Wore drab clothing and were mostly illiterate. Could not afford to buy books or attend concerts.
A mild form of baroque painting. Consisted of everyday scenes of sensuality, personal portraits, and pastoral paintings. Could be found in ordinary homes as well as palaces. Degradingly named as "frivolous decoration."
Believed in a mystical religion of the heart; wanted a deeply emotional religion. Urged intense Bible study which increased literacy. Appealed to Lutherans, Calvanists, and a few Catholics.
The triangular pattern of trade that bound together western Europe, Africa, and the America's. Europeans bought slaves in Africa, sold them to their colonies, bought sugar and other products there, and sold them back in the main land.
Movement during the 1700's that spread the idea that knowledge, reason, and science could improve society.
a sovereignty that was embodied solely by the monarch. e.g. Philip II, Henry IV
the responsibility of the king to God alone. In other words, the monarch is chosen directly by God to rule.
French King who revived France from economic, social, and religious turmoil. He promised a "chicken in every pot", and was one of very few monarchs who truly cared about his people. He converted to Catholicism to try to improve relations with the pope. He appointed Maximilien de Bethune, the duke of Sully, as his chief minister. He sharply lowered taxes on the peasant class and introduced a new yearly tax on government officers called the paulette. His issuing of the Edict of Nantes and the appointing of devout Protestant Sully were two of his major efforts in maintaining a relationship with Protestants.
Real Name: Armand Jean du Plessis. president of the council of ministers, appointed by Marie de' Medici. First minister of the French crown. Exalted the French monarchy as the embodiment of the state. Set in place the cornerstone of French absolutism, served for the basis of French cultural dominance of Europe in the latter half of the seventeenth century.
Policy: Total subordination of all groups and organizations to the French monarchy; curb the power of the nobility;
a state that posesses a monopoly over the instruments of justice and the use of force within the state
term preferred by historians over absolutism, in referrence to the fact that the French state in the seventeenth century became stronger in that it could achieve more of its goals. It was centralized in Paris, and the administrative bureaucracy greatly expanded.
a term often mistakenly used in substitution for absolutism. In fact, this is a twentieth century phenomenon, which directs all facets of a state's culture, including are, education, religion, the economy, and politics. Definitively, this is a total regulation of the state by the government.
Real Name: Maximilien de Bethune, duke of this province of France by which he took his nickname from. He was the chief minister to Henry IV, and was a devout Protestant. He was a very effective administrator, as he revived French trade and increased French revenue, as he laid the economic foundation by which France was successful in the age of Henry IV.
an annual tax that Henry IV imposed on royal officials to guarantee heredity in their offices.
Marie de' Medici
queen regent who served as ruler after the death of Henry IV before her son, Louis XIII became old enough to rule. She appointed Cardinal Richelieu to the council of ministers.
son of Henry IV and Marie de' Medici. His rule was dominated by chief minister Cardinal Richelieu. He ended military and political independence for Protestants with unanimous support from the royal council; it was believed that this constituted a "state within a state"
meaning slingshot or catapult in French; a series of civil wars between 1648-1653.
"a street urchin who threw mud at the passing carriages of the rich." Also came to mean anyone who opposed the policies of the government. Someone who participated in the Fronde
Italian diplomat, who was appointed by Louis XIII, to be the successor of Cardinal Richelieu, after Richelieu had convinced him to do so. He served on the council of the state under Cardinal Richelieu. He was unsuccessful at containing the civil wars in France, as well as subduing the nobility. First Name: Jules
son of Louis XIII; represented the peak of absolutist development in France. He had the longest reign in French history. He was the self proclaimed "sun king", and he dominated his age. He brought France into the Grand Century, or the Age of Magnificance. He installed the royal court in Versailles. He popularized the French feeling of nationalism, where the French people were linked by language and culture, and began to refer to themselves as French. He used Versailles as a tool to undermine the noble class. The only weakness that he had as a king was in finance, where he appointed Jean Baptiste Colbert as the controller general of finances.
named the controller general of finances by Louis XIV, he believed that the wealth and economy of France should serve the state. This idea came to be known later as mercantilism.
collection of government policies for the regulation of economic activities, especially commerce, by and for the state. Based the wealth of the nation on its treasury of gold and silver.
Revocation of the Edict of Nantes
action in which Louis XIV revoked the liberty given to the French Huguenots by his grandfather, Henry IV. This ordered the destruction of Huguenot churches, schools, the Catholic baptism of Huguenots, and the exile of Huguenot priests who failed to renounce their faith.
the art and literature of the age of Louis XIV, artists of the late seventeenth century were deliberately imitating the subject matter and the style of classical antiquity; resembled Renaissance Italy, contained styles of discipline, balance, and restraint
generally considered the finest example of French Classicist painting. His most well known piece was "The Rape of the Sabine Women".
composer who was favored by Louis XIV in the French Classicist era, combined lively animation with restrained austerity typical of French Classicism. First name: Jean Baptiste
composer whose harpsichord and organ works posessed the regal grandeur that Louis XIV loved. First name: Francois
composer who wrote religious music to entertain the king at mealtimes. First name: Marc Antoine
Real Name: Jean Baptiste Poquelin, playwright, stage manager, director, and actor; produced comedies such as "Tartuffe" and "Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme"
contemporary of Moliere, anylitical of the power of love; common theme was good v. evil; famous for his tragedies. First name: Jean
Wars of Louis XIV
period of military actions during which France was at war in order for the king at the time to obtain his title of "conqueror", lasted for 33 of his 54 year reign. The army of France had reached 250,000 at the time of the Treaty of the Pyrenees, which ended the war with Spain. The king appointed Francois le Tellier, who became marquis de Louvois, as the secretary of the state for war. The king appointed all officers down to the rank of colonel. Richelieu's policies led to the broad scale expansionism of France. Aggression continued due to the success of the king, along with the weakness of the war with Germany. The age ended with the peace of Utrecht.
Real Name: Francois le Tellier, marquis. Appointed by Louis XIV as secretary of the state for war. He created a successful, powerful, professional army.
military leader who was known for being extremely strict and adhering absolutely to the rules. First name: Jean
Treaty of Nijmegen
ended the war with Spanish Netherlands, Franche Comte, and the Holy Roman empire
William of Orange
nicknamed "the Silent". Dutch prince who was a bitter enemy of Louis XIV, and later became the king of England. He joined the League of Augsburg and ruled the coalition.
League of Augsburg
coalition including the Habsburg empire, the kings of Sweden and Spain, electors of Bavaria, Saxony, and the Palatinate. Led by William of Orange.
successor of Jean Baptiste Colbert as the minister of finances, resorted to the devaluation of currency, selling of offices, tax exemptions, and titles to the nobility. First name: Claude de
French term for the pedestal tables that were found in Versailles, they were made of silver. They were sent off to the mint along with other silverwares to start the movement in which Louis XIV required all silverware in the country to be sent off to the mint.
Charles II of Spain
mentally defective and sexually impotent king. Died in 1700, and his posessions were split amongst his brothers, the king of France and the Holy Roman Emperor. Include the country in the answer
Peace of Utrecht
treaty that ended the the War of Spanish Succession, and consequently theFrench expansionist movement, named for the city that the French war with Germany ended in.
national taxes in Spain, fell mostly on the poor, imposed by absolutist monarchs
son of Philip II, only cared abou the "absence of vice" in his life. He was a weak king who handed the rule to the lazy duke of Lerma, who used the power to increase his familial wealth.
son of Philip III, another weak, lazy and unsuccessful king, handed the rule to Gaspar de Guzman, the count duke of Olivares
real name: Gaspar de Guzman, count duke of his province in Spain. he was given power by Philip IV. he was a very strong administrator, who believed in the imperial tradition, which meant the revival of the war with the Dutch
Treaty of the Pyrenees
treaty that ended the French Spanish wars, where Spain was forced to surrender extensive territories to France. this marked the end of Spanish power in Europe.
author who wrote Don Quixote, one of the greatest literary masterpieces ever, which delineates the fabric of 16th century Spain. First name: Miguel de
both the title and the main character of the literary masterpiece of Miguel de Cervantes. the book delineates the fabric of 16th century Spain. the character was a man who journeyed through the countryside to find military glory by fighting windmills
a word that was adopted by the English language meaning "idealistic but impractical", taken from the title of the masterpiece of Miguel de Cervantes, used today to characterize the life of seventeenth century Spain.
the limitation of government by law. Balance of the authority and power of government on one side and the rights and liberties of the subjects on the other.
either written or unwritten, this makes the government follow the accordances of law, and is made by the people or a founding body of a nation.
a system of government in which all the people have the right to participate indirectly or directly in the government of the state.
system of government where sovereign power resides in the electorate and exercised by the electorate's representatives.
a system of government in which a king or queen serves as the head of the state and possesses some residual political authority, but the ultimate sovereignty resides in the electorate.
term referring to "the vote" in a democratic government
Scottish cousin on the Stuart side to Elizabeth I. Succeeded her after her death. He was an intelligent man who was king of Scotland for thirty five years before becoming the king of England. he was deeply devoted to the theory of divine right. he wrote an essay called "The Trew Law if Free Monarchy" to describe his feelings about divine right. he even went so far as to speak about it in front of the House of Commons, who did not like it, and thus began a several generation feud between Parliament and the king of England. He was in dire needs of finances from a Parliament that did not support him. He was a sympathizer of Roman Catholics.
son of James I, had many similar problems with Parliament, and ruled without them for eleven years. He supported the policies of William Laud, the archbishob of Canterbury. He was sympathetic of Roman Catholicism, along with his father and sons. He was pressured into accepting the Triennial act, due to his fear of Scottish invasion. He faced a predicament when he could not hold off Irish revolt, the Scottish, or Parliament. His actions started the English Civil War and eventually got himself executed.
English Civil War
war between the Crown and Parliamentary forces, caused by the actions of Charles I. The question that was to be answered was where the sovereignty should reside, with Parliament or with the Crown. This war did not solve anything, and led to the execution of the king and a period called the Interregnum.
period between the end of the English Civil War and the restoration, when England was witness to solitary experience of military dictatorship between 1649 and 1660.
archbishop of Canterbury who was supported by king Charles I, he imposed elaborate rituals and ceremonials in churches, and believed that there should be absolute uniformity in the conduction of church services.
term used to describe the period from 1649 to 1660 where parliament did not meet.
legislation that was passed by the House of Commons due to the actions of Charles I and requires that Parliament convenes every three years.
English philosopher and political theorist, author of "Leviathan", wrote that sovereignty was embodied in the people of the state, and transferred to the king by implicit contract.
republican form of government which England used during the Interregnum
term used to describe the time during which Oliver Cromwell was in power over England, although it was truly a militant dictatorship. This lasted from 1653 to 1658
sat in the Long Parliament himself, molded the military into a New Model Army, which he used effectively in the English Civil War against the Royalist forces. When in power, he divided England into twelve military districts, each ruled by a major general. On religion, he was tolerant, with the only exception being Roman Catholics. He was himself a Puritan. He died in 1658, which marked the collapse of the military ruled government in England.
Instrument of Government
legislation passed by Oliver Cromwell in 1653, invested executive power in the lord protector, gave the power to fully control taxes to Parliament. He destroyed the document after a series of disputes over it.
New Model Army
a highly effective new breed of military machine, created by Oliver Cromwell, which he used in the English Civil War to defeat the royalist forces
title given to the leader to the military government during the Protectorate, the only one of which being Oliver Cromwell.
legislation by Oliver Cromwell that required that all goods produced by England were to be transported using English ships. This was one of his few successful legislations, because it created a strong boost in the development of English marine mercantilism.
time period in which the houses of Parliament were restored, along with the Anglican Church, courts of law, and local government systems. After the death of Oliver Cromwell. New ruler was to be Charles II, son of Charles I, reincarnating the monarchy.
Eldest son of Charles I, re-established the English monarchy during the Restoration, after the Interregnum. He was not interested with doctrinal issues, and he intended to rebuild a reputation with Parliament. He became the first king in several generations to have a good rapport with Parliament. He later set up Secret dealings with Louis XIV of France, where Charles would be paid a large sum of money annually, and in exchange he would weaken legislation against Catholics in an attempt to Catholicize England. He ended up converting to Catholicism himself just before death and was succeeded by his brother, James I.
brother of Charles II, previously the duke of York. he was publicly Catholic, which sparked all possible anti Catholic fears in England, along with Louis XIV's revocation of the Edict of Nantes. He appointed Roman Catholics to positions in the military, universities, and local government, in direct violation of the Test Act. His second wife produced a male heir, who they planned to raise Catholic. He imprisoned seven Anglican archbishops in the Tower of London, who were eventually acquitted to the relief of the English people. He and his wife fled to the country, leaving their daughter Mary to rule with her husband William of Orange.
nickname for the five people that Charles II appointed to Parliament, it was an acronym of their last names.
legislation making it illegal for anyone who does not receive the Eucharist at the Church of England to vote, hold public office, preach, teach, attend universities, or even assemble for meetings.
a Quaker who was arrested for having an assembly of Friends, which is a violation of the Test Act. He was found not guilty by the jury and was let go.
events from 1688-1689, involved the replacement of James II with William and Mary with minimal bloodshed. this event destroyed the theory of divine right monarchy. This ultimately decided that sovereignty would be divided between the Crown and Parliament.
Bill of Rights
a document that laid the cornerstone for the English constitution, the principles for which were formulated directly in response to Stuart absolutism. This granted the right to bear arms to Protestants, but not to Catholics, because Protestants feared them.
English political philosopher who wrote the "Second Treatise of Civil Government", the ultimate defense for the Glorious Revolution. He maintained that people set up civil government to protect life, liberty, and property, and that a government that oversteps its proper function-to protect the natural rights of the subjects- was tyranny.
a system of government in which leading ministers from the House of Commons formulate common policy and conduct the business of the country. In this system, legislative power and executive power are held in the leading ministers, who form the Government.
royal minister who led the cabinet from 1721 to 1742, and developed the idea that the cabinet was responsible to the House of Commons. He was the first prime minister and enjoyed the support of both the Crown and Parliament.
Hanoverian king who was known for presiding over the meetings of the cabinet.
son of George I, discontinued the practice of the king presiding over cabinet meetings.
a system of government in which an elite class of merchants handle the affairs of the local estate. In this system, the estates have almost all of the power.
representative from each province, appointed by the States General of an oligarchy.
the capital city of Holland, the site where the Estates convene
members of the elite merchant class of an oligarchy, controllers of the estate
a provincial body of government that held almost all of the power on a local level in an oligarchy
a weak union of strong provinces, a term used to describe the government of the Dutch in the 17th century
the industry that was the cornerstone for the Dutch economy in the 17th century.
Dutch biologist who invented the first compound microscope. First name: Anton van
Gluckel of Hameln
Jewish widow who wrote an autobiography during the height of actions in the seventeenth century, offers scholars today a look into the life of a Jewish girl at the time. Subject of the "Individuals in Society" on page 558.
Court of Versailles
palace in which Louis XIV resided in for part of his reign. It was located about ten miles outside of Paris. it contained several wings, each serving a different purpose. He would hold parties to entertain the nobles who he invited to stay there for part of the year. It also contained a private lake, along wit a massive garden. It was a standing representation of the embellished lifestyle of Louis XIV. Subject of the "Listening to the Past" on pages 562-563.
Istanbul was Constantinople
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
Battle of Bosworth Field ends War of the Roses
Edict of Nantes
End of the 100 Years War
Henry IV becomes 1st Bourbon king
Prince Henry the Navigator
A prince of Portugal who hoped to find gold and other useful goods in and around Africa to increase Portugal's worth. Wanted to have his explorers begin expeditions west to the Atlantic and south in Africa.
The first explorer to round Africa and discover the Cape of Good Hope from 1497-1499, establishing an alternate sea route to Asia.
Successfully undertook an expedition to circumnavigate the globe in 1519-1522, establishing a strong Spanish presence in the Indian Ocean during his travels (and spreading Christianity, as Spanish=Catholic). However, he did not survive the entire expedition.
A Genoese sailor and navigator that eventually settled in Spain, eventually proposing, due to stories of Eastern (Asian) wealth, to sail west in hopes of reaching Asia and discovering a new route to gold and spices. However, his plan, especially as his critics said the voyage was much longer than he said, was rejected by the French and Portuguese but eventually approved by Isabella and Ferdinand. He eventually did find land in the New World, opening the new Columbian Exchange of goods.
Treaty of Tordesillas
Treaty by which Pope Alexander VI divided new lands between Portugal and Spain. Portugal got Africa (and Brazil) and Spain got the rest of the New World. More information in separate set: APEH Pre-Ch14.
(1469-1527) The writer of The Prince, he theorized that the State's existence necessitated a strong central government and powerful leader. His book gives guidelines for how a prince should conduct himself in office, describing his belief to unify Italy. The ideas of the "ends justifying the means" were highly revolutionary, as religious morality and guidelines are largely removed in favor of complete control. His ideal candidate for such a position was Cesare Borgia, the son of Pope Alexander 6.
Cosimo de Medici
(1389-1464) The first semi-stable ruler of Florence, he controlled the government with his considerable wealth through the Medici Bank, the first international bank that funded the Papal States and many large European financial centers. This considerable private wealth enabled him to become a patron of the arts and a customer of many famous artists.
Lorenzo the Magnificent
(1449-1492) The successor of Cosimo de Medici that continued to bolster the arts through continual patronage of artists and writers, including Michelangelo, affirming Florence's status as a center of arts and culture in Italy.
(r. 1492-1503) Famous for drafting the Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) as well as "other things," he bribed the Cardinals to get elected and sold church positions for the ever increasing debt of the RCC. Died having spent the church into the ground and very unpopular. Son was Cesare Borgia.
Son of Pope Alexander 6, he was Machiavelli's candidate for the ideal ruler of Italy to unify it in entirety to strengthen it against invading nations.
(1483-1485) Served as regent of son of Edward 4 after his death, most likely murdered the son in the Tower of London. His now unstable position as king led to his murder at the Battle of Bosworth Field to Henry Tudor's Lancastrian forces.
(1485-1509) The first Tudor king of England, he worked to end the struggle for power between the Yorks and Lancasters by marrying Elizabeth of York, effectively merging the two sides into Tudors. Helps to affirm his position on the throne with marriage of son Arthur to Ferdinand and Isabella's Catherine of Aragon, later securing a hereditary monarchy for his son Henry.
Isabella of Castile
The regnant queen of Castile (Spain), she married Ferdinand of Aragon, unifying most of modern Spain under one set of rulers. She also sponsored Columbus's expedition to the New World and made several other overseas expeditions for trade and diplomacy. Her implementation of the Spanish Inquisition led to a near total Catholic Spain, causing her to have near total control over the Spanish Church.
Ferdinand of Aragon
The king of Aragon (Spain), he married Isabella of Castile, strengthening what was nearly modern Spain and imposing an Inquisition on the residing Muslims and Jews, forcing them to convert, be killed, or flee. His support of overseas trade and eventual conquering of several other Spanish territories through local civic militia led to a large increase of his and his wife's power.
(1461-1483) The first king of France, he strengthened his own power by imposing taxes, promoting commerce, strengthening and maintaining what was western Europe's first standing army, and dissolving the Estates General through several agreements. His installment of this previous achievement gained him near ultimate power, and the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges (1438), giving him ultimate control over the French Church, only increased his strength.
Auto da fé
Literally "demonstration of faith," this ritual of public confession was one of many punishments during the Inquisition that were given to those accused—often anonymously—of religious lapses, i.e. not practicing one's faith or reverting to previous beliefs in secret.
This term refers to the city-state of Muscovy, a quickly expanding nation of tsars beginning with Ivan 3, who abolished local power quickly and forced many of those surrounding Moscow, the central city, to move closer or within the city boundaries. This rule, however, came with several other differences, not the least being that the tsar claimed all land and controlled all property of his subjects, and, being the only representation left of the Eastern Orthodox Church, the clergy proclaimed that the tsar was the best possible ruler and that Muscovy was this term.
This sect of Christianity was created after the split of the religion into east and west, this being the east and practiced by those in the Byzantine Empire and, after that fell, Muscovy. This religion is less important, as it is based and practiced in Eastern Europe.
Based on the name "Caesar," this title referred to rulers of Muscovy after 1462 by Ivan 3, when they gave this title to themselves to support their autocratic rule.
War of the Roses
Struggle for the English throne (1455-1485) between the house of York (white rose) and the house of Lancaster (red rose) ending with the accession of the Tudor monarch Henry VII. More information in separate set: APEH Pre-Ch14.
Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges
Formal declaration of power of state of France over the Church that also included the members of the EG not having to pay taxes, with revenues coming from the "middle class" and poor. This helped to assert French royal power. More information in separate set: APEH Pre-Ch14.
Powerful sea trade republic that controlled the Adriatic Sea and became very powerful through their existence as a trade center pre-Columbian Exchange—trade shifted to Atlantic Ocean.
A city-state principality controlled through money by the Medici, causing this area to become the beginnings of the Renaissance.
Controlled by the pope, this area had its own standing army, with popes acting as religious, political, and military leaders.
A kingdom in southern Italy controlled by the Hapsburgs (through Spain). Mainly excluded from the Renaissance.
A duchy overseen by France and gained large amounts of land from 1384 and 1476, acquiring the mainly open space between France and the HRE. Spreading from the Netherlands to France, German-, French-, and Dutch-speaking subjects all lived within these borders artificially constructed by a careful practice of statecraft.
An Islamic state that rose to power in Eastern Europe in the mid-15th century, capturing most of today's Turkey and Constantinople. Based in (today) Istanbul, this people conquered territories in southern Asia, the Middle East, and southeast Europe.
The eastern half of the Roman Empire that survived after the gradual fall of Rome, with the capital being Constantinople, after Emperor Constantine. This empire was destroyed by the Ottomans in 1453.
A powerful Russian Orthodox state led by a dynasty of tsars after Mongol collapse in the 1460s, ruling without restraint or fall from this time period in an autocratic government.
A "rebirth" of Classical culture and knowledge existing in Italy from the 14th-15th century and in northern Europe from the 15th-16th century, usually classified as an influx of Greco-Roman culture in the transition to modernity and a gradual separation from the Church.
EFFECT: Change in paradigm.
An Italian painter, sculptor, and architect in the late 15th and 16th centuries, well known for his sculpting of David, painting Pietà as well as the Sistine Chapel ceiling and back wall, and constructing the Dome of the St. Peter's Basilica. Known as one of the greatest artists of all time.
A sculptor and painter in the 14th and 15th centuries famous for his "Gates of Paradise," bronze doors decorating the San Giovanni Baptistry in Florence. Considered one of the first to demonstrate linear perspective.
A Florentine architect and (occasionally) painter that was the first to create a dome after the Romans that decorated the Cathedral in Florence. Considered one of the first to demonstrate perspective as a new way to represent the world, his promotion of this art style, as well as inclusion of non-religious subjects, portraits, mythology, and nudity helped to shape the art that dominated the Renaissance.
The last pope before Columbus, he promoted many Renaissance artists and architects to create an urban renewal of Rome and its beautification. The Sistine Chapel is named after him.
EFFECT: Authorized slavery of non-Christian peoples as long as they are converted VERY IMPORTANT
Hundred Years War
Struggle over land surrounding France formed by marriage between Duchess Catherine & King of England, French king starts taking land back and English retaliate, French win the war, but lose all the battles (capture more and more land each time)
EFFECT: Cores of Fr & Eng created
Fall of Constantinople
Byzantine Empire conquered by Turks—Muslim, city renamed to Istanbul
EFFECT: As this was the end of the Silk Road, Turks raise prices on goods passing to Europe
Rounding of Africa
Portugal infuriated by high $$ of Silk Road goods, under rule of Prince Henry the Navigator search for new trade route around Africa
EFFECT: Trade routes begin to move from Med. Sea to Atlantic Ocean
Sailed from Eur to Americas (Hispaniola) under sponsorship by Queen Isabella (regnant) of Castile (Spain), married to King Ferdinand of Aragon
EFFECT: Opening of Columbian Exchange—Flow of goods back and forth between Americas and Europe—increases relevance of Atlantic Ocean trade
Reconquering of Spain from Muslims, finishes in 1492, makes Spain Roman Catholic. Wiped out all Muslims and Jews through conversion or execution.
EFFECT: Spanish=Catholic, Catholic=Spanish, Spanish economy crashes through exile of Muslims & Jews, but recovers from New World (don't worry, they crash again later)
Treaty of Tordesillas
Spain and Portugal both claim "Asia," pope decides.
Draws line around globe, gives New World to Spanish (not Brazil) and Asia to Portugal
EFFECT: Major influences of both cultures drawn.
SIDENOTE: Britain & France both take some because Protestant (don't care about the Pope) and is good for France (don't care about the Pope), respectively.
One ruler controls entire area, contrasts with traditional Native American rule (king of the tribes)
1. France (1450s)
2. England (1500s)
3. Spain (1500s w/ Charles 5 as ruler)
France government formation
Royals called Valois, Salic Law implemented (no female rulers)
First King of France (Louis 11) creates parliament, called Estates General, meet to never meet again—Conditions: Aristocrats in EG don't pay taxes, EG dissolves
EFFECT: King Louis 11 gets complete control of France
Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges/Concordat of Bologna
France rejects papal hierarchy for Church, through agreements king appoints all French church officials, pays money to Church for this
EFFECT: France has complete control over the church
SIDENOTE: No other ruler does this.
War of the Roses
War over who would rule England between Yorks and Lancasters, Edward 4 wins—York, dies when son is 11, throne passes to brother of Edward instead—Richard 3 puts son in Tower of London who then disappears, accused of killing them, war starts again with Lancastrians winning, led by Henry Tudor.
Battle of Bosworth Field 1485 ending battle, Henry 8 (Tudor) becomes king (with little claim)
"Germany" government formation
Consists of 600+ independent "little teeny-tiny countries" (hereafter referred to as the formal term: LTTCs.) all part of the Holy Roman Empire
Emperors elected by 7 LTTC rulers (7 countries choose)
1452—Maximilian (or Frederick?) von Hapsburg (or Habsburg) elected HRE ("dynasty" continues until 1806, but each time HRE loses power due to bribery for position as emperor