Explain the career development theory of John Crites
Crites formulated his theory of career counseling after reviewing and writing the major approaches to the subject. His theory is a comprehensive synthesis of those approaches plus some of his own ideas. He dealt with issues of diagnosis, the counseling process, and outcomes. His work reflects the influence of trait-and-factor and developmental career counseling. He believes that the diagnosis determines the outcome of the counseling. He identified three types of diagnosis: differential, which determines what the problem is; dynamic, which identifies the reasons for the problem; and decisional, which establishes how the problem is dealt with. he developed, used, and recommended that other counselors use the Career Maturity Inventory.
The main idea of constructivism is that each person builds his or her own reality. The counselor helps the clients to understand the meaning of their life stories and the life roles each plays,, as well as the relationship between those roles and their values and beliefs.
Fantasy, Tentative, Realistic
As developmentalists, Ginzberg, Ginsburg, Axelrad, and Herma accepted the idea that occupational choice can be divided into three periods
up to the age of 11, during which period the child may use any occupation in play
age 11-17, during which time the child examines careers in light of interests and values and his or her own capabilities.
17-adulthood, when the person makes a choice. The third period is subdivided into three stages
during which the person limits vocational choices to personal interests and abilities
during which a definite choice is made.
during which the person is educated for his or her choice of vocation. This theory was based on a study of a small group of young men from the middle-class in the 1950s and rather ignored the fact that gender, race and social standing were important factors in occupation choice at that time.
Tiedeman and Miller-Tiedeman's decision-making model
Tiedeman & O'Hara saw career development as parallel to Erikson' psychosocial stages and believed that career decisions were made as ego related problems were solved. They believed that career decisions were related to other decisions one made about other areas of one's life and that each person can choose his or her career. They saw career decisions as a two-phase continuing process and identified the phases as anticipation/preoccupation, during which a person imagines himself working at a particular job and implementation/adjustment, when the person actually works at that job. Tiedeman and Miller-Tiedeman emphasized the key role an individual plays in making career decisions
John Krumboltz's Learning Theory of Career Counseling (LTCC)
(1) Genetic endowments and special abilities that could limit a person's occupational choices.
(2) Environmental conditions and events in a person's life such as education, activities, economic conditions and personal resources
(3) Instrumental and associative learning about careers including the reactions and reinforcement from others.
(4) Task approach skills which include problem-solving ability, working and thinking patterns, and emotions. he saw learning as a life-long process and thought a person's beliefs could be changed through career counseling. He also believed that chance events could influence a person's career development. In working with clients he made use of the Career Beliefs Inventory
Ann Roe's career development theory
this theory of career development was a needs approach in which genetics, childhood experiences, and the relationship with parents were contributing factors to the choice of a career. She believed that the parenting style would determine whether or not a person would be people-orientated
She also subscribed to Maslow's theory that careers are chosen to meet needs; a people-orientated person chooses a career that involves working with people while a non-people-orientated person will chose a career with less involvement with others.
Roe pioneered the use of a two-dimensional occupational classification using fields and levels. The eight occupational fields she identified are: service, business contact, organization or managerial, technology, outdoor, science, general cultural, and arts and entertainment. Technology, outdoor, and science are non0person orientated careers
She also identified six levels of occupational skill: high level professional and managerial or p&m1; regular level professional and managerial or p&m2; semi-professional and managerial or semi-professional and small business; skilled, semi-skilled; and unskilled.
Discuss the decision approach to career development
The decision approach to vocational guidance is a broader perspective than the trait-based approach. Proponents of this approach think that vocational education should be an integral part of all students' entire education. H.B. Gelatt identified two types of decisions: terminal or final decisions and investigatory decisions. A person makes investigatory decisions with added information until he or she reaches a terminal decision. Gelatt devised a model that illustrates the decision-making process and shows information divided into predictive, value, and decision systems.
life roles by Donald Super
Super identified eight life roles that describe the ways people spend time and energy. The child is the time spent relating to parents and lasts throughout the life of the parents. The student is time spent in education, starts in early childhood and may last into older adulthood. Leisurite is Super's coined word for time spent in leisure activities. The citizen is time spent volunteering or in other work for the community. The worker is the time one spends working for pay. The parent is time spent caring for a child; lasts throughout the child's dependent years and in many cases well beyond. The spouse is the time spent in a committed relationship. The homemaker is the time spent in maintaining a home -- housework, yard work, repairs, shopping, etc.
John Holland's modal personality types
Using an actuarial approach Holland developed a theory that the choice of career is an outgrowth of personality that is influenced by the stereotypes people hold of different types of employment. He identified six modal personal orientations that he believed all people have in varying degrees.
personality type is active and aggressive, prefers explicit tasks, and may not relate very well to others. Career choices would be mechanical or technical work
personality is intellectual, prefers creative activities, and may have poor social skills. Typical career choices would be in the sciences or the computer field
personalities are imaginative and expressive, with a preference for activities that are not rigidly ordered or systematic. Typical career choices would be something in the arts or some other creative field.
personality types enjoy interaction with others and imparting information and have little interest in tools or mechanical devices. Teaching or counseling would be typical careers for them
people are extroverted leaders who are willing to take chances and have little use for abstract thinking. Politics and business are possible careers.
personality types are practical with a dislike for unorganized or ambiguous activities. Possible careers include office work and accounting.
Donald Super's vocational development stages and vocational development tasks
Growth: birth to 14 or 15 - self-concept, attitudes, interests, and needs develop, child develops a general understanding of the world of work
15-24 - person explores choices through classes, work, and hobbies, makes tentative choice and develops related skills
25-44 - builds skills and stabilizes in a work situation
45-64 - adjustments are made to improve job situation.
65+ person prepares for retirement,, retires.
14-18 - develops and plans a possible occupational goal.
18-21 - chooses a specific vocation.
21-24 - completes training and enters the job market.
24-35 - works at a chosen career.
35+ - establishes self in career. According to Super these tasks can be repeated as a person adapts to changes in himself or herself or the work environment changes. They are also somewhat outdated since they were based on middle class white males with college educations during the 1950s and 1960s.
Super's Archway Model
delineates the changing diversity of life roles a person experiences over his or her life span and illustrates how biographical, psychological, and socioeconomic elements influence the development of a career. The name for the model came from the fact that it was modeled on the doorway of his favorite Cambridge college.
Life Career Rainbow
is a graphic illustration in which each colored band represents a life role and numbers around the outer edge indicate age. The amount of time a person typically spends in each role is indicated by dots of varying sizes within the bands. The Rainbow can be used to help a person find a balance of work and life that is suited to himself or herself.
Career Pattern Study
followed the vocational behavior of a group from the ninth grade to thirty years of age. The study revealed that a person who was mature and an achiever while in high school would likely be a successful young adult.
Explain how the hexagon relates to John Holland's theory
Holland's hexagon is a graphic illustration of the correlation between his six personality types and six occupational environments or categories that he called themes. The themes are positioned on the hexagon so that those with the most similarity are closest together and those with the most differences farther apart. A person's scores on the Vocational Preference Inventory and the Self-Directed Search determine which work environment is the best fit for his or her personality. Holland believed that most people are not clearly of a single personality type, but will have characteristics from two or three types.