Common Neuromuscular Disorders

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Neuropathy

Disorder of nerve, involving axon and/or myelin

Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS)

Demyelination of peripheral nerves caused by immune system dysfunction

Neuropathy-Clinical Signs & Symptoms

Sensory and/or motor loss, associated with LMN symptoms, Diabetic stocking/glove distribution

Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS)-Clinical Signs & Symptoms

Progressive weakness, areflexia, paresthesias (distal extremities)

Myopathy-Clinical Signs & Symptoms

Muscle weakness, worse proximally, no sensory or reflex loss

Muscular dystrophy (MD)

Degeneration of muscle fiber

Dermatomyositis

inflammation of the skin and underlying muscle tissue, involving degeneration of collagen, discoloration, and swelling, typically occurring as an autoimmune condition or associated with internal cancer.

Myasthenia|ˌmīəsˈθēnēə|

Disorder of neuromuscular junction at post-synaptic membrance

Myasthenia Gravis-Clinical Signs & Symptoms

Symmetrical weakness, proximal limb, neck, diaphragm, eyelids; normal reflexes and sensation; weakness increases with repetitive use

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS-Lou Gehrig's Disease)

Degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord, brain stem, and brain

ALS-Lou Gehrig's Disease-Clinical Signs & Symptoms

Progressive weakness, paralysis, loss of swallowing, respiration; Both UMN and LMN symptoms, initial muscle weakness of distal UE, LE or face; later, spasticity and hyperreflexia (sensation spared)

SCI: Brown-Sequard

Ipsilateral weakness, loss of vibration/position with contralateral loss of pain and temperature

SCI: Central Cord

UE worse than LE involvement, preserved sacral function

SCI: Posterior Cord

Loss of proprioception, 2-point discrimination with intact pain, temperature, touch sensations, and motor function

SCI: Anterior Cord

Loss of pain, temperature, and motor function with intact proprioception and vibratory senses

Stroke

Loss of blood flow to brain from ischemia (80%) or hemorrhagic causes

Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

Progressive demyelination disease of CNS, causing sclerotic plaques in white matter; onset young adults aged 20-50

Multiple Sclerosis-Clinical Signs & Symptoms

diplopia, sensory loss, weakness, fatigue, spasticity, nystagmus, intention tremor, dysarthria, incontinence, cognitive, affective changes

Parkinson's Disease

Progressive disorder basal ganglia, loss of dopamine in substantia nigra

Parkinson's Disease-Cardinal signs

bradykinesia, tremor, postural instability, rigidity

Huntington's Chorea

Inherited disorder, mid-life onset, cell death caudate/putamen basal ganglia

Huntington's Chorea-Clinical Signs & Symptoms

Involuntary movements-Chorea, ataxia+personality change/dementia

Cerebellar Ataxia

Extremity and/or trunk ataxia, intention tremor, dysmetria and dysrhythmia

Traumatic Brain Injury-Clinical Signs & Symptoms

Coma, cognitive loss, sensory/motor loss, impairment of coordination, speech, behavior, vision, swallowing

Polymyositis

A type of chronic inflammatory means 'many muscle inflammation'; myopathy related to dermatomyositis and inclusion body myositis.

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