Chapter 1: The evolution of psychology

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Psychology book themes and variations

What is Psychology?

Psychology is the science that studies behavior and the physiological and cognitive processes that underlie behavior, and it is the profession that applies the accumulated knowledge of this science to practical problems.

What did Wilhelm Wundt do in 1879?

He succeeded in establishing the first formal laboratory for research in psychology at the University of Leipzig.

Who was the founder of Psychology?

Wilhelm Wundt

Wilhelm declared what about Psychology?

He declared that the new psychology should be a science modeled after fields such as physics and chemistry.

What was the subject matter of the new science, Psychology?

Scientific study of conscious experience.

Who emerged structuralism?

Edward Titchener

What is Structuralism?

based on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and investigate how these elements are related. Wanted to identify the fundamental components of conscious experience such as sensations, feelings, and images.

Structuralism- introspection

The careful, systematic self-observation of one's own conscious experience.

What is Functionalism?

based on the belief that psychology should investigate the function or purpose of consciousness, rather than its structure.

Who emerged functionalism?

William James

William James

Emerged Functionalism and believed that psychology is deeply embedded in a network of cultural and intellectual influences.

Natural Selection- Charles Darwin

inherited characteristics that provide a survival or reproductive advantage are more likely than alternative characteristics to be passed on to subsequent generations and thus come to be "selected" over time.

Functionalists vs. Structuralists

Structuralists gravitated toward the laboratory while functionalists were more interested in how people adapt their behavior to the demands of the real world around them.

What did G. Stanley hall, James Mckeen, and John Dewey began to investigate?

metal testing, patterns of development in children, the effectiveness of educational practices, and behavioral differences between the sexes.

According to Freud the unconscious ...

contains thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence on behavior.

Freud's psychoanalytic theory...

attempts to explain personality, motivation, and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of behavior.

Who founded behaviorism?

John B. Watson

What is behaviorism?

A theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behavior.

What did Watson propose about behaviorism?

Watson proposed that psychologists abandon the study of consciousness altogether and focus exclusively on behaviors that they could observe directly.

What is behavior?

Behavior refers to any overts (observable) response or activity by an organism.

B.F. Skinner

argued that psychology could understand and predict behavior adequately without resorting to physiological explanation. Organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes, and they tend not to repeat responses that lead to neutral or negative outcomes.

What is humanism?

a theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, especially their freedom and their potential for personal growth.

Carl Rogers- humanism

argued that human behavior is governed primarily by each individual's sense of self, or "self-concept"- which animals presumably lack.

Applied Psychology

The branch of psychology concerned with everyday, practical problems

Clinical Psychology

The branch of psychology concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders.

Cognition

refers to the mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge. Involves thinking or conscious experience

Cognitive theorist

argue that psychology must study internal mental events to fully understand human behavior.

Evolutionary Psychology

examines behavioral processes in terms of their adaptive value for members of a species over the course of many generations. Natural Selection favors behaviors that enhance organisms' reproductive success.

Positive Psychology

uses theory and research to better understand the positive, adaptive, creative, and fulfilling aspects of human existence.

what are the 7 major research areas in psychology

1.) Developmental psychology 2.) Social psychology 3.) experimental psychology 4.) physiological psychology 5.) cognitive psychology, 6.) Personality 7.) psychometrics

What are the 4 areas of specialization in applied psychology?

1.) Clinical psychology 2.) Counseling psychology 3.) educational and school psychology 4.) industrial and organizational psychology

7 key themes in psychology

As a field of study: 1.) Psychology is empirical 2.) psychology is theoretically diverse 3.) Psychology evolves in a sociohistorical context. subject matter: 4.) behavior is determined by multiple causes 5.) behavior is shaped by cultural heritage 6.) heredity and environment jointly influence behavior 7.) people's experience of the world is highly subjective.

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