Patho final study guide

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A nurse is caring for a patient who cannot clot. Which end product of the clotting cascade is the patient unable to make?

Fibrin

Lymphadenopathy is characterized by what?

Enlarged lymph nodes

After a myocardial infarction, the nurse cares for the impaired ventricular function because:

The resulting ischemia leads to hypoxic injury and myocardial cell death

If there is a backflow of blood this is called:

Aortic regurgitation

Upon assessment the nurse finds a widened pulse pressure and throbbing peripheral pulses. Which valve disorder does the nurse expect?

Aortic regurgitation

The most common composition of a renal stone is:

Calcium

The most important factor in renal calculus formation is __________

urine pH

The most common symptom that would occur with renal calculus formation is:

Flank pain

A 25 year old female presents with burning urination and is diagnosed with a UTI. What organism is the most likely cause of this?

E. Coli

Symptoms of a UTI include:

Burning sensation, urgency, pain, occasional blood in the urine

What are the signs, symptoms, and causes of acute cystitis?

Blood in the urine, flank pain, urine is cloudy

Delayed puberty is due to:

Slow maturation of that person

An 18 year old is diagnosed with dysmenorrhea. What symptoms will she most likely experience?

Painful menses

Polycystic ovary syndrome is the leading cause of _________ in the U.S.

Infertility

The most common cause of yeast vaginitis is ______

Candida albicans

The treatment for endometriosis is suppressing _______

Ovulation (by birth control, hormones, etc.)

HPV is associated with _____ cancer

Cervical

Gynecomastia is overdevelopment of _______ in males.

Breast tissue

______ is the most common bacterial STI in the U.S. and leading cause of infertility for both men and women

Chlamydia (is bacterial whereas herpes is viral)

Esophageal varices are the most common disorder associated with upper _______

Gastrointestinal bleeding

Hematochezia is bleeding from the _______

Rectum

The cardinal sign of pyloric stenosis caused by ulceration or tumors is ________

Vomiting

The most common clinical manifestation of a stress ulcer is _______

Bleeding

A 16-year-old female presents with abdominal pain in the right lower quadrant. Physical examination reveals rebound tenderness and a low-grade fever. A possible diagnosis would be:

Appendicitis

______ disrupts hypothalamic satiety signaling and promotes overeating and excessive weight gain and is a factor in the development of obesity

Leptin resistance

A 13-year-old female confides to her mother that she binge eats and induces vomiting to prevent weight gain. This disease is referred to as:

Bulimia nervosa (can cause esophageal varices due to bleeding & acidic damage)

Anorexia is classified as:

Starvation eating (eating barely enough to survive)

Anorexia can lead to ________ failure

Cardiac

Both bulimia nervosa & anorexia can cause:

Malabsorption

What are the manifestations of the icteric phase of hepatitis?

Jaundice, dark urine, enlarged liver

Cholecystitis is inflammation of the gallbladder wall usually cause by:

Gallstones (these cause pain)

The cardinal signs of small bowel obstruction are _______ and ________.

Vomiting & Distention (of the abdomen)

A 70-year-old female with osteoporosis fractures her leg at a location of preexisting abnormality. She reports that the fracture occurred following a minor fall. Which of the following best describes the fracture?

Pathologic

Pathologic fractures can occur due to: ________ or a pre-existing fracture that has _______

Preexisting pathology, re-fractured

A 12-year-old female hurts her ankle while playing basketball. Tests reveal that she tore a ligament. TJ condition is known as a:

Sprain

A 35-year-old female suffers a broken clavicle following a motor vehicle accident. X-ray reveals that bone surfaces in the joint partially lost contact with each other. This condition is called:

Subluxation

The most important and clinically useful measurement in rhabdomyolysis is serum _______

Creatine kinase

Osteoporosis is due to an increase in bone _______

Reabsorption

Osteoporosis can be attributed to decreased _____

Estrogen levels (and Calcium)

Patients with osteoporosis are at risk for _______

Bone fractures

What is the primary cause of osteomyelitis?

A Staphylococcus infection

In osteomyelitis what happens to the periosteum?

It gets inflamed

Treatment for osteomyelitis is:

antibiotics for 30 days

Degenerative joint disease is cause by:

degeneration & loss of articular cartilage

What is the first line of treatment for rheumatoid arthritis (RA)?

Methotrexate

RA is thought to be an _______ disease

autoimmune

Inflammation of RA starts in the ______

Synovial membrane

______ is characterized by diffuse pain, fatigue, and point tenderness

Fibromyalgia

_________ are a collection of infected hair follicles and usually occur on the back of the neck, the upper back, and the lateral thighs.

Carbuncles

_____ are at greater risk for developing keloids

African Americans

Irregular scar formation is due to irregular _____ and ______ formation

Fibroblast activity & Collagen

The diagnosis is pityriasis rosea, and this disorder is cause by a:

Virus

People who have had chicken pox, now have a ______ virus in their system, which can cause ______

Herpes zoster, shingles

A 50-year-old male recently underwent a liver transplant & is taking immunosuppressive drugs. He now has pain & vesicular eruptions on the face and trunk. He reports that he had chickenpox as a child. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?

Herpes zoster

Tinea corposis (ringworm) is a _____ infection of the skin

Fungal

Candidiasis is ______ by the use of systemic antibiotics because the antibiotics ______ the normal flora

exacerbated (intensified), eliminate
(this can cause a yeast infection)

A 20-year-old female presents with vaginal itch and thin-walled pustular lesions. She is diagnosed with candidiasis. This condition is caused by a(n):

yeast

Urticarial lesions are mediated by the _____ response

Histamine

______ is manifested by hardening of the skin

Scleroderma

Which skin lesion is the most serious form of skin cancer?

Malignant melanoma

A male is experiencing frontotemporal hair recession. He is diagnosed with male patterned baldness which is a form of ____

Alopecia

Superficial partial thickness burns leave the ______ & _____ sensors in tact

Tactile & pain

Deep partial thickness burns are characterized by a _______ appearance

Waxy-white appearance (the skin is gone)

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