The biology that deals with classification & naming is called...
This provided scientists with the means for sorting & grouping according to...
They can be sorted ether...
Physically: Shape, size, color, etc.
Chemically: Biochemistry and DNA sequence.
Who is considered the founder of modern Taxonomy?
Linnaeus. There are seven Taxa.
What are the seven Taxa of Classification?
It is Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, and Species.
The system of nomenclature using two terms, the first one indicating the genus and the second the species.
A scientific name of an organism contains two words (both in Latin). Both names must be in italics.
What are the Major Taxonomic Groups?
Eubacteria, Archaebacteria, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia
What is Monera?
Unicellular or colonial
Cell wall present
May be autotrophic or heterotrophic
Now divided into 2 separate kingdoms
Eubacteria: Bacteria (Ex: Escherichia coli)
Archaebacteria: Live in extreme environments such as volcanic hot springs, brine pools, & mud pools that do not contain oxygen.
(Ex: Methanogens, halophiles)
What is a Protista?
Unicellular or simple multicellular
Can have both plant and/or animal characteristics
3) Slime molds
What is a Protozoa?
Animal like in their mode of nutrition (heterotrophs)
Some form colonies, mostly free-moving
Examples: Amoeba, Paramecium, & Euglena
What is an Algae?
Plant-like in their mode of nutrition, contain chlorophyll (Autotrophs)
Unicellular or in colonies
Examples: Diatoms, Spirogyra, Green red & brown algae
What is a Fungi?
-Absorb digested food from their environment.
Secrete enzymes that digest food outside the organism.
-Unicellular or multicellular
What are examples of Fungi?
Yeast, Bread Mold, Mushrooms, Athletes Foot
What is a Plantae?
What is a Bryophytes?
-Lacks vascular or conducting tissue
-No true roots, stems or leaves
-Relatively short plants
-Grow in areas where there is an abundant supply of water.
What are examples of Bryophytes?
Mosse, Liverworts, Hornworts,
What is a Tracheophytes?
-Vascular tissue present (xylem & phloem)
-All the modern plants
-Can be spore dispersing or seed plants
-Seed plants divided into 2 groups (Gymnosperm and Angiosperm)
What are the two types of tracheophytes?
Gymnosperm and Angiosperm
What is an Animalia?
-Organ & organ system level of organization
What are the 9 phyla of Animalia?
2. Cnidaria (Coelenterates)
What is a Phylum Porifera?
-Two cell layers only: ectoderm and endoderm
-Sessile (as adults)
-Filter nutrients from water drawn into a central cavity
-No nerve or muscle tissue
-Reproduce asexually by fragmentation
-Also reproduce sexually, are hermaphrodites
What is an example of a Phylum Porifera?
What are the characteristics of a Phylum Cnidaria (Coelenterates)?
-2 cell layers (ectoderm & endoderm)
-Hollow body cavity and one opening
-Have a gastrovascular cavity where extracellular digestion occurs
-Carry out intracellular digestion inside body cells in lysosomes
-Contains stinging cells (cnidocytes) that produce nematocysts
What is an example of a Phylum Cnidaria (Coelenterates)?
Hydra, Jellyfish, Corals
What are the characteristics of Phylum Platyhelminthes?
-Contains: ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm
-Digestive cavity has only one opening
-Body cells can exchange nutrients and wastes by diffusion
What are examples of a Phylum Platyhelminthes?
What are the characteristics of a Nematodes (Roundworms)
-Many are parasitic
What is an example of a Nematodes (Roundworms)?
Trichinella (causes trichinosis)
What are the characteristics of a Phylum Annelids?
-Segmented body walls
-Tube within a tube body structure
-Digestive system contains a crop, gizzard, and intestine
-Blood contains hemoglobin and carries oxygen
-Closed circulatory system
What are examples of a Phylum Annelids?
Earthworm, Leech, Slug
What are the characteristics of a Mollusks?
-Soft body often protected by a hard calcium containing shell
-Bilateral symmetry with three distinct body zones
1) Head-foot, which contains both sensory and motor organs
2) Visceral mass, which contains the organs of digestion, excretion, and reproduction
3) Mantle: secretes the shell
-Open circulatory system
-Most have gills and nephridia
What are examples of Mollusks?
Squid, Octopus, Slug, Clam, and Snail
What are the characteristics of Phylum Arthropods?
-Jointed appendages & legs
-Open circulatory system
-Malpighian tubules for removal of nitrogenous wastes, uric acid
What are the classes of a Phylum Arthropods?
-Crustacea (example: lobster)
-Insecta (example: grasshopper)
-Arachnida (example: spider)
What are the characteristics of Echinoderms?
-Sessile or slow moving
-Bilateral symmetry as an embryo but revert to the primitive radial symmetry as an adult
-Reproduce by sexual reproduction
-Can also reproduce by fragmentation and regeneration
Examples of Echinoderms are?
Sea Urchin, Starfish
What are the characteristics of Phylum Chordates?
-Possess dorsal nerve chord
-Internal skeleton (endoskeleton)
What are the classes of a Phylum Chordates?
Fish, Amphibians, Reptiles, Aves (birds), Mammals
What are examples of Phylum Arthropods?
Lobster, Spider, Grasshopper
What is the three domain classification system?
Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya (They came from one common ancestor.)
What are the characteristics of Domain Bacteria?
-Maybe aerobic or anaerobic
-Some are pathogenic
-Vital for genetic engineering
-May carry out conjugation (primitive sexual reproduction)
-Cell wall of peptidoglycan
-no introns (noncoding regions within the DNA)
-Some are photosynthetic
-Corresponds roughly to Eubacteria in old scheme
What are the characteristics of Domain Archaea?
-Introns present in some genes
What are the characteristics of Domain Eukarya?
-All organisms have a nucleus and internal organelles
-Eukarya includes the four remaining kingdoms:
What do the spores from slime mods form?
They form flagellate cells.