Structure of a Long Bone - Gross Anatomy

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DIAPHYSIS

Diaphysis or shaft, makes up the most of the bone's length & is composed of compact bone. The diaphysis is covered & protected by a fibrous connective tissue membrane. ( Central not spongy)

PERIOSTEUM

Hundreds of connective tissue "perforating, or Sharpey's fiber secure the periosteum to the underlying bone. (membranes is bone).

EPIPHYSES

Are the ends of the long bone. Each epiphysis consists of a thin layer of compact bone.

ARTICULAR CARTILAGE

Instead of a periosteum, covers its external surface. The articular cartilage is glassy hyaline cartilage, it provides a smooth, slippery surface that decreases friction at join surfaces.

EPIPHYSEAL LINE

In adult bones, there is a thin line of bony tissue spanning the epiphysis that looks a bit different from the rest of the bone in that area. The epiphyseal line is a remnant of the epiphyseal plate (a flat plate of hyaline cartilage) seen in a young , growing bone & causes the lengthwise growth of a long bone.

EPIPHYSEAL PLATE

In adults the cavity of the shaft is primarily a storage area for adipose (fat) tissue. It is called the yellow marrow, or medullary, cavity.

YELLOW MARROW OR MEDULLARY, CAVITY

In infants this area forms blood cells, and "Red Marrow is found there.

RED MARROW

In adult bones, red marrow is confined to cavities in the spongy bone of flat bones & the epihyses of some long bones.

BONE MARKINGS

Reval where muscles, tendons, & ligaments were attached & where blood vessels & nerves passed.

BONE MARKING - A:

Projections, or processes, which grow out from the bone surface.

BONE MARKING - B:

Depressions, or cavities, which are indentations in the bone.

LONG BONE - A

Humerus of arm

SHORT BONE - B

Carpal of wrist

FLAT BONE - C

Sternum

IRREGULAR BONE - D

Vertebra

OSTEOCYTE

Mature bone cells found within the matrix in tiny cavities called lacunae. The lacunae are arranged in concentric circles called lamellae around central (Haversian) canals. Each complex consisting of central canal & matrix rings is called an Osteon or Haversian system.

CANALICULI

Tiny canals, that radiate outward from the central canals to all lacunae.

OSSIFICATION

The hyaline cartilage model is completely covered with bone matrix (bone collar) by bone forming cells called Osteoblast. Growing bones also must widen as they lengthen. This process by which bones increase in diameter is call appositional growth.

OSTEOCLAST

Giant bon destroying cells in bones, to break down bone matrix & release calcium ions into the blood. ( breaks down to blood & uses it).

BONE REMODELING

Is essential if bones are to retain normal proportions & strength during long bone growth as the body increases in size & weight. (If you dont use it, you loose it)

VERTEBRAL FORAMEN

Canal through which the spinal cord passes.

SHOULDER GIRDLE & PECTORAL GIRDLE

Consists of two bones - a calvicle & a scapula

SCAPULAE

"Shoulder blades", are triangular & are commonly called "wing" because they flare when we move our arms posteriorly.

CALVICLE

Is a slender, doubly curved bone. It attaches to the manubrium of the sternum medially (at its sternal end) & to the scapula laterally.

PELVIC GIRDLE

Is formed by tow coxal bones, or ossa coxae, commonly called "Hip bones".Together the scrum & the coccyx, the hip bones form the bony pelvis.

Note

Pelvic girdle & bony pelvis have slightly different meanings (pelvic girdle = 2 coxal bones; bony pelvis = 2 coxal bones, sacrum, & coccyx)

FIBROSE JOINT

united by fibrous tissue. In sutures, the irregular edges of the bones interlock & are bound tightly together by connective tissue fibers, allowing essentially no movement.

CARTIAGINOUS JOINT

Bone ends/parts united by cartlage. First Rib, Hyaline cartilate, Sternum

SYNOVIAL JOINTS

Bone ends are separated by a joint cavity containig synovial fluid. They account for all joints of the limbs. All synovial joints have 4 distinguishing features. ie; Joint Cavity, Articular, Synovial membrane, Fibrous Articular.

AMPHIARTHROSES

A slightly movable joint

DIARTHROSES

A freely movable joint

SYNARTHROSES

An immovable joint.

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