Who was the first person to discover America
Lief Ericsson and the Vikings
Who were the major conquistadors of the Spanish explorers, and what people and rulers did they conquer?
Hernan Cortez conqured the Atzecs, and Francisco Pizarro conqured the incas
What were the famous three "G's" of Spanish exploration?
Spain said it was conquering was for GOD,glory, and gold but they really wanted GOLD, GLORY, and god
How were the Spanish and the French different in their approach to colonization?
the french were good to the indians so that they could develop a fur trade, but the spanish made the indians their slaves and were very mean to them
What event led to the beginning of the English overtaking the Spanish as a world power?
when queen elizabeth defeated the spanish aramada
what were the French looking for in the colinization of america
the northwest passage
How did Spain's new-found wealth come to hurt them in the long run?
they had lots of money from the gold but no food or crops to live on
How did England make up for it naval inferiority with its private fleet?
queen Elizabeth hired private muskateers called the sea doggs to defeat the spanish "invincible" armada
While Spain came for gold and France set up trading companies, why did England want to start colonies? Why did their people want to leave England?
England started colonies so that they could get taxes because they were in debt from the french and indian war but he people went for religious freedom
Where was the first English colony? The first successful English colony?
Roanoke island, Jamestown
How were some of the ways the English used to finance their passage to america
joint stock companies or to become indentured servants
In terms of who was in charge, what were the 3 types of colonies started by the English?
Royal-ruled by a direct official of the king
Proprietary-ruled by a company
Charter-ruled by a family
what is blue blood?
nobility or social prominence
Who led the Protestant Reformation in England?
Under what great queen did England really start to grow?
What was Queen Elizabeth's famous quote?
"I may not be a lion, but I am a lion's cub, and I have a lion's heart."
Who were some of the other European countries involved with colonizing America?
Spain, Britain, Holland, France
What is Mercantilism? Cash Crop? An Apprentice?
economic theory where a country's wealth is measured by gold and silver (exporting greater than imports), A crop that is grown to be sold for money instead of being used for personal needs, someone who learns trade from a master crafts person
What were the three regions of the English Colonies?
middle,south, and north
What was spectral evidence?
when somebody says that your spector (spirit) assaulted them
Why should we admire Giles Corey
An elderly but feisty farmer in Salem, famous for his tendency to file lawsuits. His wife, Martha, is accused of witchcraft, and he himself is eventually held in con-tempt of court and pressed to death with large stones and his last words are "more weight"
Why use an Irishman in place of a slave?
they were more desperate for work, they took less pay, and if they died you didn't have to pay them
Who was Metacomet?
the chief of Wampanoag. he was the war leader of the Wampanoag in King Phillip's war
Talk of the Triangular Trade
raw materials (cotton, tobacco, rum) from America to Europe, manufactured goods from Europe to Africa, slaves from Africa to the Americas
What was the Albany Plan? Who originally thought of it?
A plan by Ben Franklin to "unite the colonies"
How was the French and Indian War part of a longer conflict?
the war put England in debt so they taxed the Americas
How did the results of the French and Indian war hurt the relationship between England and its American colonists?
Americans wanted to be independent but England needed money from taxes from the Americas so they would not let them become independent
What was Salutary Neglect? Why did this end?
Britain basically ignored the colonies before the French and Indian war it ended because England needed tax money from the colonies
What truly happened at the Boston Massacre? Why did John Adams defend the soldiers?
Colonists were attacking british troops so they fired in self defense, He said all should be treated equal
Why were the Americans upset over the taxes that they had to pay? What was the British view on this?
they had no vote in parliment if they had to pay or not and England said they were being represented by other Englishmen
What were the Intolerable Acts?
They were passed as a punishment from the Boston Tea Party. The port of Boston was shutdown, colonists couldn't hold town meetings, officers had to be tried in England or Canada, there was a new Quartering Act passed
Tell of the British enforcements of mercantilism and discipline in the years after the French and Indian War?
they only allowed trade with england and no other foriegn countries
Who were some of the leaders of colonial resistance against the british?
The Sons of Liberty
What were the 2 things that the 1st Continental Congress did?
they planned to meet again in a year and they created the Olive branch petion
he wrote the pamphlet Common Sense (1776) arguing for American independence from Britain.
Talk of the Declaration of Independence - Who wrote it? Why did we need it?
James Madision, because he wanted to declare America separate from England
What were the main advantages in favor of the Americans in the war?
gurrila warfare- while they lined up to shoot americans hid behind bushes, trees, ect. also we could get troops easyer because our troops were in america wheras they had to ship Eurapean troops from England
the 3 major foreign countries who came to America's aid in terms of national support
a victory that is exceptionally costly in terms of troops an example is Bunker Hill
What were the main points of the Treaty of Paris of 1783?
the British agreed to give the US the Mississippi River as a western boundary IF the US would sign the treaty ignoring its French allies The US also promised to pay Loyalists for the property they lost or had had destroyed. The British also had to remove all british troops from america
What were the problems of the Articles of Confederation? What success did it have?
Gave all powers to the states; No central authority; Messed up economy; No central government; Had to ask states for permission to tax and take money. It got us through the revolution
was led by Daniel Shays it was a protest against the land being taken away and they were aked to pay taxes with gold coins when they were getting paid with gold coins
Who was at the Constitutional Convention? Who famously wasn't?
all states attended except GA and RI
What are the major compromises of the Constitution?
The 3/5 compromise (all slaves are counted as 3/5 of a person) the Great compromise (a compromise creating the house and senate) and the electoral college
Tell of the Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution, added after the Constitution was ratified, in order to protect individuals from a strong central goverment
What are the lengths of terms of office for President, Senator, Representative, and Supreme Court Judge?
4 years, 6 years, 2 years, life
Who was (is) known as the Father of the Country? The Father of the Constitution? The Father of the National Debt?
George Washington, James Madison, Alexander Hamilton
Who were Washington's cabinet members?
Alexander Hamilton, Henry Knox, something Randolf(idk if u know click edit the password is<3) and Thomas Jefferson.
Why was it important to assume all the debts?
so we could get a national credit
What was impressment?
it was the forceable capture of american soildiers and put into the british navy
How did Adams' handle the XYZ affair?
he kept the u.s nuetral and out of conflict
How did Washington handle the Whiskey Rebellion
He rode out himself to put it down
John Adams, quoting the Marquess di Beccaria
"If I can be but the instrument of preserving one life, his blessing or tears of transport shall be sufficient consolation to me, for the contempt of all mankind"
An American soldier giving reason why he fought
"We have always governed ourselves."
A French official at the end of the war
"They stand no longer in need of her protection. She will call on them to contribute towards supporting the burdens they have helped bring on to her, and they will answer by striking off all dependence."
William Pitt on the French
"I would have been content to bring France to her knees, now I will not rest until I have laid her on her back."