America accomplished heavy industrialization in the post-Civil War era. Spurred by the transcontinental rail network, business grew and consolidated into giant corporate trusts, as epitomized by the oil and steel industries.
Explain how the transcontinental railroad network provided the basis for an integrated national market and the great post-Civil War industrial transformation.
president of the Central Pacific who hammered in the final golden spike that united the Union Pacific and the Central Pacific , which created the first Transcontinental Railroad.
Collis P. Huntington
One of the Big Four with Leland Stanford, he was involved in both railroads and shipping. He founded Newport News Shipping, the largest privately owned shipyard in the United States.
James J. Hill
railroad entrepreneur who built and operated the Great Northern Railroad from St. Paul, Minnesota to Everett, Washington; without any federal grants or subsidies, the Great Northern Railroad made money by shipping goods to Asia, GNR became the most successful transcontinental railroad and the only one that wasn't eventually forced into bankruptcy
Identify the abuses in the railroad industry and discuss how these led to the first efforts at industrial regulation by the federal government.
United States financier who accumulated great wealth from railroad and shipping businesses (1794-1877)
Attorney General of the U.S., he obtained an active injunction that state union members couldn't stop the movement of trains. He moved troops in to stop the Pullman strike.
United States financier who gained control of the Erie Canal and who caused a financial panic in 1869 when he attempted to corner the gold market (1836-1892)
Industrialization radically transformed the practices of labor and the condition of the American working people. But despite frequent industrial strife and the efforts of various reformers and unions, workers failed to develop effective labor organizations to match the corporate forms of business.
Describe how new technological inventions fueled new industries and why American manufacturers increasingly turned toward the mass production of standardized goods.
Alexander Graham Bell
United States inventor (born in Scotland) of the telephone (1847-1922)
American inventor best known for inventing the electric light bulb, acoustic recording on wax cylinders, and motion pictures.
Explain why the South was generally excluded from American industrial development and remained in a Third World economic subservience to the North.
forme the Armour and company which the worlds largets food and chemical manufacturing company in the country. he also established the largest privated refrigerator car fleet. He pioneered the principles of large sclae reorganization an the refrigeration industry
Analyze the social changes brought by industrialization, particularly the altered position of working men and women.
Henry W. Grady
Editor of the Atlanta Constitution, preached about economically diversified South with industries and small farms, and absent of the influence of the pre-war planter elite in the political world.
Charles Dana Gibson
United States illustrator remembered for his creation of the 'Gibson girl' (1867-1944)
Explain the failures of the Knights of Labor and the modest success of the American Federation of Labor.
Knights of Labor leader, opposed strikes, producer-consumer cooperation, temperance, welcomed blacks and women (allowing segregation)
John P. Altgeld
Was the governor of the U.S. state of Illinois from 1893 until 1897. He was the first Democratic governor of that state since the 1850s. A leading figure of the Progressive Era movement, he improved workplace safety and child labor laws, pardoned three of the men convicted of the Haymarket Riot, and, for a time, resisted calls to break up the Pullman strike with force.
United States labor leader (born in England) who was president of the American Federation of Labor from 1886 to 1924 (1850-1924)
With the concentration of capital in the hands of a few, new moralities arose to advance justifications for this social and economic phenomenon. A "survival of the fittest" theory emerged, a popular theory based on the thought of Herbert Spencer and William Graham Sumner, which argued that millionaires were products of natural selection. Another theory known as the "Gospel of Wealth" argued that well-to-do societies had to prove
themselves morally responsible.
Describe how the economy came to be dominated by giant trusts, such as those headed by Carnegie and Rockefeller in the steel and oil industries, and the growing class conflict it precipitated.
Creates Carnegie Steel. Gets bought out by banker JP Morgan and renamed U.S. Steel. Andrew Carnegie used vertical integration by buying all the steps needed for production. Was a philanthropist. Was one of the "Robber barons", United States industrialist and philanthropist who endowed education and public libraries and research trusts (1835-1919)
John D. Rockerfeller
often referred to as the richest person in history, this man founded Standard Oil and became a philanthropist who contributed to many worthy projects including but not limited to medicine, scientific research and education., US industrialist and founder of the Standard Oil Company, dominated the Oil industry, and was the first american business trust
J. Pierpont Morgan
an American financier, banker, philanthropist, and art collector who dominated corporate finance and industrial consolidation during his time. In 1892 Morgan arranged the merger of Edison General Electric and Thompson-Houston Electric Company to form General Electric.
Indicate how industrialists and their intellectual and religious supporters attempted to explain and justify great wealth, and increasing class division through natural law and the Gospel of Wealth.
William Graham Sumner
He was an advocate of Social Darwinism claiming that the rich were a result of natural selection and benefits society. He, like many others promoted the belief of Social Darwinism which justified the rich being rich, and poor being poor.
He was a Revered and a staunch advocate of Social Darwinism. He helped the justification of the rich and the need to not help the poor in his "Acres of Diamonds" lecture.
English naturalist. He studied the plants and animals of South America and the Pacific islands, and in his book On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859) set forth his theory of evolution.
English philosopher and sociologist who applied the theory of natural selection to human societies (1820-1903)
James Buchanan Duke
Formed the American Tabacco Company, controlled 90% of the cigarette market
land designated by the federal government for building schools, roads, or railroads
helped improve the railroad system and proved to be a significant boon to the railroads; was a standard gauge of track width and came into wide use during the postwar years; not having this widely harmed the South in transporting goods during the CIvil war; this eliminated the expense and inconvenience of numerous changes from one line to another
Standard Time Zones
areas roughly defined by twenty-four 15° sections of longitude, each centered on a time meridian that establishes the hour of the day, one of the 24 regions of the earth in which noon is set as the time when the sun is highest over the center of the region
originally referring to cattle, term for the practice of railroad promoters exaggerationg the profitability of stocks in excess of its actual value
an association of companies for some definite purpose
a refund of some fraction of the amount paid
the practice perfected by Andrew Carnegie of controlling every step of the industrial production process in order to increase efficiency and limit competition
the practice perfected by John D. Rockefeller of dominating a particular phase of the production process in order to monopolize a market, often by forming trusts and alliances with ompetitors
a mechanism by which one company grants control over its operations, through ownership of its stock, to another company. The Standard Oil Company became known for this practice in the 1870s as it eliminated it competition by taking control of smaller oil companies
the practice of having executives or directors from one company serve on the Board of Directors of another company. J.P. Morgan introduced this practice to eliminate banking competition in the 1890s
buildings, machinery, tools, and other goods that provide productive services over a period of time.
goods (as food or clothing) intended for direct use or consumption
a political system governed by the wealthy people
(law) a judicial remedy issued in order to prohibit a party from doing or continuing to do a certain activity
(law) government activities seeking to dissolve corporate trusts and monopolies (especially under the United States antitrust laws)
a town or city in which most or all real estate, buildings (both residential and commercial), utilities, hospitals, small businesses such as grocery stores and gas stations, and other necessities or luxuries of life within its borders are owned by a single company.
Believers in the idea, popular in the late nineteenth century, that people gained wealth by "survival of the fittest." Therefore, the wealthy had simply won a natural competition and owed nothing to the poor, and indeed service to the poor would interfere with this organic process. Some social Darwinists also applied this theory to whole nations and races, explaining that powerful peoples were naturally endowed with gifts that allowed them to gain superiority over others. This theory provided one of the popular justifications for U.S. imperial ventures like the Spanish-American war.
"Survival of the Fittest"
a natural process resulting in the evolution of organisms best adapted to the environment
the idealized American girl of the 1890s as pictured by C. D. Gibson
Negative term for a worker called in by an employer to replace striking laborers
When management closes the doors to the place of work and keeps the workers from entering until an agreement is reached
Yellow Dog Contract
an agreement some companies forced workers to take that forbade them from joining a union. This was a method used to limit the power of unions, thus hampering their development.
list that circulated among employers, beginning in 1947, containing the names of persons who should not be hired
liquor dealers, professional gamblers, lawyers, bankers, and stockbrokers; cooperatives (to pool their money and resources), better working conditions, and the 8 hour workday
people who oppose organized government
a theory or system of social organization that advocates the vesting of the ownership and control of the means of production and distribution, of capital, land, etc., in the community as a whole.
Pure and Simple Unionism
purposed by Samuel Gompers, president of the AFL; he proposed that argued that "the trade unions pure and simple are the natural organizations of the wage workers to secure their present and practical improvement and to achieve their final emancipation."
a labor union whose membership is restricted to workers in a particular craft
A working establishment where only people belonging to the union are hired. It was done by the unions to protect their workers from cheap labor.
Union Pacific Railroad
(USG), railroad that started in Omaha, Nebraska and it connected with the Central Pacific Railroad in Promentary Point, Utah; hired Chinese immigrants
Central Pacific Railroad
(USG), A railroad that started in Sacramento , and connected with the Union Pacific Railroad in Promentary Point, Utah; hired Irish immigrants
Great Northern Railroad
the northernmost transcontinental railroad route in the United States and was north of the Northern Pacific Railway route. The Great Northern was a privately funded transcontinental railroad
New York Central Railroad
built in 1867, it ran from New York City to Chicago was over 4,500 miles of tracks
a joint-stock company organized in 1863 and reorganized in 1867 to build the Union Pacific Railroad. It was involved in a scandal in 1872 in which high government officials were accused of accepting bribes.
Pullman Palace Cars
introduced in the 1860s these were billed as "gorgeous traveling hotels" by some. Others called them "wheeled torture chambers" and potential funeral pyres
Wabash, St. Louis, and Pacific Railroad Company v. Illinois
(1886) a Supreme Court decision that prohibited states from regulating the railroads because the Constitution grants Congress the power to regulate interstate commerce. As a result, reformers turned their attention to the federal government, which now held sole power to regulate the railroad industry
a range of hills in northeastern Minnesota where rich iron ore deposits were discovered in 1887
Standard Oil Company
(1870-1911) John D. Rockefeller's company, formed in 1870, which came to symbolize the trusts and monopolies of the Gilded Age. By 1877 it controlled 95% of the oil refiners in the U.S. It was also one of the first multinational corporations, and at times distributed more than half of the company's kerosene production outside the U.S. By the turn of the century it had become a target for trust-busting reformers, and in 1911 the Supreme Court ordered it to break up into several dozen smaller companies.
an industrial process for making steel using a Bessemer converter to blast air through through molten iron and thus burning the excess carbon and impurities
United States Steel
J. P. Morgan and the attorney Elbert H. Gary founded U.S. Steel in 1901 (incorporated on February 25) by combining the Andrew Carnegie's Carnegie Steel Company with Gary's Federal Steel Company and William Henry "Judge" Moore's National Steel Company for $492 million. It was capitalized at $1.4 billion, making it the world's first billion-dollar corporation.
Gospel of Wealth
This was a book written by Carnegie that described the responsibility of the rich to be philanthropists. This softened the harshness of Social Darwinism as well as promoted the idea of philanthropy.
"Acres of Diamonds"
This was a lecture written by Russell Conwell that advocated Social Darwinism It justified the rich being rich and the poor being poor and, it called people not to help the poor since it was their fault, thus promoting a laissez faire ideal.
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
1890: A law that forbade trusts or combinations in business, this was landmark legislation because it was one of the first Congressional attempts to regulate big business for the public good. At first the law was mostly used to restrain trade unions as the courts tended to side with companies in legal cases. in 1914 the Act was revised so it could more effectively be used against monopolistic corporations.
American Tobacco Company
Controlled nine-tenths of the nation's cigarette production in 1890 and about three-fourths of all tobacco production in 1904; broken up in 1911 for violating the Sherman Anti-Trust Act.
The term has been used with different applications in mind. The original use of the term was an attempt to describe the rise of a South after the Civil War which would no longer be dependent on now-outlawed slave labor or predominantly upon the raising of cotton, but rather a South which was also industrialized and part of a modern national economy
Interstate Commerce Act
1887: Congressional legislation that established the Interstate Commerce Commission, compelled railroads to publish standard rates, and prohibited rebates and pools. Railroads quickly became adept at using the Act to achieve their own ends, but the Act gave the government an important means to regulate big business.
National Labor Union
(1866-1872): This first national labor organization in U.S. history was founded in 1866 and gained 600,000 members from many parts of the workforce, although it limited the participation of Chinese, women, and blacks. The organization devoted much of its energy to fighting for an eight-hour workday before it dissolved in 1872.
Knights of Labor
the second national labor organization, organized in 1869 as a secret society and opened for public membership in 1881. They were known for their efforts to organize all workers, regardless of skill level, gender, or race. After the mid-1880s their membership declined for a variety of reasons, including their participation in violent strikes and discord between skilled and unskilled members.
1886-A May Day rally that turned violent when someone threw a bomb into the middle of the meeting, killing several dozen people. Eight anarchists were arrested for conspiracy contributing to the disorder, although evidence linking them to the bombing was thin. Four were executed, one committed suicide, and three were pardoned in 1893.
American Federation of Labor
A national federation of trade unions that included only skilled workers, founded in 1886. Led by Samuel Gompers for nearly four decades, they sought to negotiate with employers for a better kind of capitalism that rewarded workers fairly with better wages, hours, and conditions. Their membership was almost entirely white and male until the middle of the twentieth century.