APUSH: Gilded Age

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The winner of the 1868 election

General Grant (1st Term)

Democrat nominee of the 1868 election

Horatio Seymour

On Black Friday, this man tried to raise price of Gold

Jim Fisk

Employed bribery and fradulent elections to milk NY of $200,000,000

"Boss" Tweed

Scandal involving Union Pacific Railroad paying government to stay quiet

Credit Mobilier

Party consisting of those disgusted with political corruption

Liberal Republican Party

The Liberal Republican Party's candidate for 1872

Horace Greeley

The winner of the 1872 election

General Grant (2nd Term)

Removed political disabilities from the former Confederate leaders

Amnesty Act of 1872

The result of over-speculation and too many loans taken out

Panic of 1873

Money that is not in the form of gold or silver

Greenbacks

Required gov't to withdraw greenbacks from circulation & redeem $ in gold at face value

Resumption Act of 1875

When the value of greenbacks actually increased

Redemption Day of 1879

The Republican hard-money policy had a political backlash causing

A Democratic House of Representatives

An appellation for post-Civil War time

Gilded Age

A politically active fraternal organization of many Union vets

Grand Army of the Republic

Opposed the Stalwarts

The Half-Breeds (James Blaine)

In 1876 Congress passed a resolution that reminded the country of

The Traditional Two-Year Limit on Presidency

Democratic nominee for 1876

Samuel Tilden

Winner and Republican candidate of 1876

Rutherford B. Hayes

Created an electoral commission to determine the result of the 1876 election

The Compromise of 1877 aka the Electoral Count Act

During the Compromise, the Democrats wanted

The Withdrawal of troops from Louisiana and South Carolina

Supposedly guaranteed equal accommodations in public places, but voted unconstitutional

Civil Rights Act of 1875

Involved a cycle of poverty for small farmers

Crop-Lien System

State-level Codes of Segregation

Jim Crow Laws

One method of preventing Black voting in the South

Changing Literacy Requirements

Separate But Equal became common lingo after

Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)

The New Wave of Immigration included

Southern and Eastern Europe

The Old Wave of Immigration included

West and North Europe

Because this race "took away Western jobs," they were forbade from immigration in

The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882

The Republican candidate of 1880

James A. Garfield

Vice-President to Garfield

Chester A. Arthur

Democratic candidate of 1880

Winfield Scott

Garfield was assassinated by

Charles J. Guiteau

Resulted after Garfield's assassination and forbade the spoils system

Pendleton Act of 1883

Made appointments to federal jobs on the basis of competitive examination

Civil Service Commission

Republican Candidate of 1884

James G. Blaine

Democratic Candidate and Winner of 1884

Grover Cleveland (Term 1)

Appellation given to the Dem. Party during the Cleveland admin.

The Party of Disunion

The election of 1888 covered the issue of

Tariffs

The Republican candidate for the 1888 election

Benjamin Harrison

Speaker during the Billion Dollar Congress

Thomas B. Reed

Raised the tariff, annoying the troubled farmers

McKinley Tariff Act of 1890

A group of frustrated farmers and laborers

Populists aka The People's Party

One thing the Populists desired

Unlimited Coinage of Silver

Government ownership of railroads, telegraph, and telephone

Desire of the Populists

Populist candidate of 1892

General James B. Weaver

The Populists can blame losing the 1892 election of

Blacks' inability to vote

Democratic candidate and Winner of the 1892 Election

Grover Cleveland (Term 2)

Caused by overbuilding, overspeculation, labor disorder, and ongoing agriculture problems

Panic of 1893

Harrison's Admin. tried to fix the circulation of currency via

Sherman Silver Purchase of 1890

Lent $65,000,000 in gold to increase Treasury reserve

J.P. Morgan

Lowered tariffs and contained 2% tax on incomes >$4,000 but was called unconstitutional

Wilson-Gorman Tariff of 1894

James Blaine became the secretary of state during

Harrison Admin.

Gave pensions to those Union vets; a vet had to serve at least 90 days

Pension Act

The Pension act gained the support of

The Grand Army of the Republic (GAR)

The Republican Party has the nickname

The GOP

Tried to deter the new corporations and monopolies in existance

Sherman Anti-Trust Act of 1890

The Sherman Anti-Trust Act of 1890 was a way to counteract

The Bland-Allison Law of 1878

A Raise in Tariffs of 48% (Highest Yet) resulted from

The McKinley Tariff Bill

An organization of southern and western farms

Farmers' Alliance

Inflating the Economy was bad for

Lenders

Inflating the Economy was good for

Farmers

One unemployed man who demonstrated for much needed help

Jacob S. Coxey

Coxey led a group of people called

Commonweal Army

A Chicago event with participants such as American Railway Union leader Eugene Debs

Pullman Strike

Illinois governor John Atgeld pardoned the ________

Haymarket Riot

Attorney General who felt that the strikers were interfering

Richard Olney

"Coin's Financial School" was written by

William Hope Harvey

The Republican candidate of 1896

William McKinley

The real brains behind McKinley

Marcs Alonzo Hanna

Democratic candidate of 1896

William Jennings Bryan

A movingly passionate speech in favor of Free Silver by Bryan

Cross of Gold

A crossbreed between the liberal and the extremely liberal

The Demo-Pop Party

The main reason McKinley won was due to Bryan's

Radical Nature

McKinley represented _______ winning

Big Business

Replaced the Wilson-Gorman law and raised revenue

Dingley Tariff Bill

Provided that Paper Currency was to be redeemable in full in gold

Gold Standard Act

Alternate square-mile sections were given to ________ until Cleveland stopped it

railroad companies

This railway began in Omaha, Nebraska

Union Pacifc

This race was a major part of labor

Irish

Railway beginning in California (to attach to Union Pacific)

Central Pacific

The Big Four of the Central Pacific included

Collins P. Huntington

The Central Pacific utilized this race

Chinese

This railway spanned from Lake Superior to Puget Sound

Northern Pacific

This railway stretched through Southwest Deserts

Atchison (as well as Topeka and Santa Fe)

Spanned New Orleans to San Francisco

Southern Pacific Railroad

Spanned from Duluth to Seattle, created by James Hill

Great Northern

Headed the New York Central

Cornelius Vanderbilt

One way the railroads were bettered was via

Westinghouse air brakes

Jay Gould embezzled stocks from

Railroad Companies

Railroad companies grossly over-inflate the worth of their stock

Stock Watering

Defensive alliances for profits

Pools

Ruled that States could not regulate interstate commerce

Wabash Case

Banned rebates and pools and required RRs to publish rates

Interstate Commerce Act of 1887

Inventions during the Gilded Age included

Typewriters and Electric Railways

Inventor of the telephone

Alexander Graham Bell

Invented objects including the light bulb

Thomas A. Edison

To Control all aspects of an industry

Vertical Integration (like Carnegie)

To own all competitors in the effect of becoming a monopoly

Horizontal Integration (like Rockerfeller)

John Rockerfeller founded

Standard Oil

Giant Monopolistic Corporations

Trusts

Placing own men on boards of directors of other competitors

Interlocking Directorates

The actual first founder of the Bessemer Process

William Kelly

Founder of meat industry

Gustavus F. Swift

Founder of the American Tobacco Company

James Buchanan Duke

Urged the South to Industrialize in his newspaper

Henry W. Grady

The romantic ideal of Women

Charles Dana Gibson's Gibson Girl

Union that only lasted 6 weeks that excluded Chinese and basically excluded Blacks

National Labor Union

Barred liquor dealers, gamblers, bankers, etc and fought for 8 hour day

Terence V. Powderly's Knights of Labor

Event associated with Knights of Labor that basically killed them

Haymarket Square Bomb

Founder of the American Federation of Labor

Samuel Gompers

Demanded fair wages, hours, and conditions

American Federation of Labor

American Federation of Labor basically included

Skilled Workers

Man who worked to perfect skyscrapers

Loius Sullivan

Provided work and shoppers

Macys in NY and Marshall Fields in Chicago

Author of Sister Carrie

Theodore Dreiser

The "bargain stores" of the Turn of the Century

Sears and Montgomery Ward

Dark, Cramped, and All Around Awful Housing

Dumbbell Tenements

To escape filth and other bad things, Rich moved to

Suburbs

Preachers of Social Gospel

Walter Rauschenbusch and Washington Gladden

Founder of the Hull House, which helped create skills to survive in America

Jane Addams

A woman who founded an institution like the Hull House

Lillain Wald

Fought for the Protection of Women Workers and Children Laborers

Florence Kelley

Anti-immigrationists

Nativists

A group of Nativists

American Protective Association (APA)

Man who proclaimed the gospel of kindness and forgiveness

Dwight Moody (Moody Bible Institute)

Popular among Catholics and Protestants for preaching unity

Cardinal Gibbons

Group that tried to help the poor (still around today)

Salvation Army

Founder Christian Science

Mary Baker Eddy

Man who completely bashed fundamentalist ideas

Charles Darwin (Origin of a Species)

Denounced creationism with Darwin

Robert G. Ingersoll

Normal Schools

Teacher training school

Lyceums

organizations that conducted discussions,established libraries, and worked for the establishment of public schools

Chautauqua movement

movement launched in 1874 in New York that presneted adult lectures in tents

Believed in Blacks helping themselves via education

Booker T. Washington

Discovered peanut butter

George Washington Carver

First PhD black from Harvard and founded NAACP

W.E.B. Du Bois

Vassar

university for women that set the academic standard

Provided grants to states for support of education

Morrill Act of 1862

First graduate School

John Hopkins

Men who increased the interest in medical study

Loius Pasteur and Joseph Lister

Established the discipline of behavioural psychology

William James

Everything has a purpose

Pragmatism

a typesetting machine used in publishing

Linotype

Depicted the wild west and other romantic settings

Dime Novels

Wrote about adultery, suicide, and women ambition

Kate Chopin

Wrote against slavery and discrimination

Mark Twain

Wrote about seamy underside of life in America

Stephen Crane

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