The existence of nest-building in crocodiles and birds led to a prediction that this behavior was also present in
A cocklebur is dispersed by _______, whereas most fleshy, edible fruits are eaten by animals that ________.
hitching rides on animals... defecate the intact seeds
Two species that occasionally mate and produce zygotes, but which have incompatible genes that prevent the resulting embryo from developing, are separated by
reduced hybrid viability
The intimate, mutually beneficial association formed between a fungus and the root of a plant is called a
Which butterfly has changed gradually but significantly from its ancestor through micro-evolutionary events that were not part of a speciation event?
butterfly D, from one into two, then those 2 each have one that builds off of them, and D is the last one
Which of the following statements about the properties of life is false?
all organisms have the ability to maintain a constant internal temperature
The __________ represents the sporophyte generation of a conifer, and the _______ produces gametophytes.
Feathers are an example of an ________; they originally evolved ________.
exaptation....... for some other function and only later became adapted for flight
The trickling filter at a sewage treatment plant works by
passing waste water through a thick bed of rocks. Biofilms of bacteria and fungi on the rocks remove much of the organic material dissolved in the wastewater
Which of the following statements about archaea is false?
Some archaea have mitochondria like those of eukaryotic cells
The example of ocean and lake stickleback fishes indicates that morphology can be altered
by altering the expression of a developmental gene in some parts of the body but not others
Individual prokaryote cells are about _______ eukaryotes cells; collectively, all prokaryote cells on Earth ______.
one-tenth as big as ..... weigh about ten times as much as the total mass of eukaryote cells
Which of the following statements regarding fungi is false?
fungi can only break down plant material
Under the biological species concept, a species is group of organisms that
have the potential to interbreed in nature and produce fertile offspring
An antibiotic kills 99.9% of a bacterial population. You would expect the next generation of bacteria
to be more resistant to that antibiotic
Two birds species overlap in a hybrid zone. They are isolated by a slight difference in the male songs and by the females' tendency to select males with the "correct" song. Hybrid offspring tend to have reduced fertility compared to either of the parent species. What effect might natural selection have in this situation?
Natural selection might favor males with more distinctive calls and/or females that are more "choosy". As a result, the reproductive barrier between the two species could be reinforced.
In a moss, most of the plants that we see are _________, while in a fern the most dominant stage is the ___________.
According to this figure, at what time in the evolutionary history of plants did vascular systems likely first evolve?
How is the merging of continents to form Pangaea believed to have altered Earth's environments at the end of the Paleozoic era?
Shallow coastal areas were drained, leading to the extinction of many marine species
Kelp, a seaweed that is anchored to the seafloor by root-like structures and can grow to heights of 60 m, is a kind of
Which of the following options correctly represents the most likely sequence of the evolution of plants, from earliest to most recent?
bryophytes, seedless vascular plants, gymnospersms, angiosperms
Which part of this figure represents the anther?
structure A, anther looks like two beans put together
Frequently, a group of related species will each have a unique courtship ritual that must be performed correctly for both partners to be willing to mate. Such a ritual constitutes a _______, _________ reproductive barrier.
behavioral ....... prezygotic
Over the past 400 years, humans have documented the extinction of more than _______ species. This modern rate of species extinction is estimated to be _________ the normal extinction rate seen in the fossil record.
1,000 .... over 100 times greater than
Which of the following statements is not consistent with Darwin's theory of natural selection?
Individual organisms exhibit genetic change during their life spans to better fit their environment
Dinoflagellates are best described as
marine and freshwater algae that can produce harmful red tides
How can the success of one group of organisms promote the adaptive radiation of a second group?
by providing new food resources, habitats, etc. for the second group
According to the figure, green alga resulted from _______ and Euglena resulted from ________.
primary endosymbiosis .... both primary and secondary endosymbiosis
According to this figure, during what time frame was there an adaptive radiation of eutherians?
from 100 million years ago to the present
In plants, the vascular tissue made of dead cells that transport water and minerals from the roots is called
Which of the following statements about genetics is true?
Differences among organisms reflect different nucleotide sequences in their DNA
If all of Earth's history were compressed into an hour, humans would first appear less than
1 second ago
Which of the following types of reproductive barriers separates two flowering plant species that could interbreed except that one has a deep flower tube and is pollinated by bumblebees, whereas the other has a short, narrow flower tube and is pollinated by honeybees?
Uplift and formation of a mountain range divides a freshwater snail species into two isolated populations. Erosion eventually lowers the mountain range and brings the two populations together again, but when they made, the resulting hybrids all produce sterile young. This scenario is an example of
Over the past 500 million years, there have been _____ mass extinctions and each time, at least _______ 50% of the species on Earth became extinct.
five .... 50%
remove well-adapted species and groups from the Earth, so that it may take millions of years for species diversity to recover
Which of the following would a biologist describe as micro-evolution?
a change in the gene pool of a population from one generation to the next
Heterotrophic eukaryotes that digest their food externally and absorb the small molecules are referred to as
The feathers of Archaeopteryx may have been used for flight. However, it's likely that their original function was for
The three diseases that represent high-priority threats as biological weapons today are
anthrax, plague, and botulinum toxin
Life is organized in a hierarchical fashion. Which of the following sequences correctly lists that hierarchy from least inclusive to most inclusive?
MOCTOOOPCE molecule, organelle, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism, population, community, ecosystem
Which two groups of protists produce hard mineralized skeletal structures or cell walls that contribute to marine sediments and form fossils?
foraminiferans and radiolarians
Which of the following statements regarding the definition of species is false?
The morphological species concept relies upon comparing the DNA sequences of organisms
Your instructor asks you to look into your microscope to see a prokaryotic cell. You will be looking for a cell that
has a nucleus
The Monterey pine and the Bishop's pine inhabit some of the same areas of central California. The Monterey pine releases pollen in February, while the Bishop's pine does so in April. This is an example of _______