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Which of the following organisms belongs to the group represented in box 1?


The existence of nest-building in crocodiles and birds led to a prediction that this behavior was also present in

fossil dinosaurs

A cocklebur is dispersed by _______, whereas most fleshy, edible fruits are eaten by animals that ________.

hitching rides on animals... defecate the intact seeds

A slimy layer of bacteria coating a surface is also known as a _______.


Two species that occasionally mate and produce zygotes, but which have incompatible genes that prevent the resulting embryo from developing, are separated by

reduced hybrid viability

The intimate, mutually beneficial association formed between a fungus and the root of a plant is called a


Which butterfly has changed gradually but significantly from its ancestor through micro-evolutionary events that were not part of a speciation event?

butterfly D, from one into two, then those 2 each have one that builds off of them, and D is the last one

Which of the following statements about the properties of life is false?

all organisms have the ability to maintain a constant internal temperature

The three-domain system

subdivides the prokaryotes into two different domains

The __________ represents the sporophyte generation of a conifer, and the _______ produces gametophytes.


What is the difference between a tissue and an organ system?

an organ system includes tissues

Feathers are an example of an ________; they originally evolved ________.

exaptation....... for some other function and only later became adapted for flight

Members of the kingdom Animalia

can obtain their food by eating other organisms

The trickling filter at a sewage treatment plant works by

passing waste water through a thick bed of rocks. Biofilms of bacteria and fungi on the rocks remove much of the organic material dissolved in the wastewater

Which of the following statements about archaea is false?

Some archaea have mitochondria like those of eukaryotic cells

Which of the following causes food poisoning and typhoid fever?


The example of ocean and lake stickleback fishes indicates that morphology can be altered

by altering the expression of a developmental gene in some parts of the body but not others

Individual prokaryote cells are about _______ eukaryotes cells; collectively, all prokaryote cells on Earth ______.

one-tenth as big as ..... weigh about ten times as much as the total mass of eukaryote cells

Which of the following statements regarding fungi is false?

fungi can only break down plant material

Under the biological species concept, a species is group of organisms that

have the potential to interbreed in nature and produce fertile offspring

An antibiotic kills 99.9% of a bacterial population. You would expect the next generation of bacteria

to be more resistant to that antibiotic

Two birds species overlap in a hybrid zone. They are isolated by a slight difference in the male songs and by the females' tendency to select males with the "correct" song. Hybrid offspring tend to have reduced fertility compared to either of the parent species. What effect might natural selection have in this situation?

Natural selection might favor males with more distinctive calls and/or females that are more "choosy". As a result, the reproductive barrier between the two species could be reinforced.

In a moss, most of the plants that we see are _________, while in a fern the most dominant stage is the ___________.

gametophytes......... sporophyte

According to this figure, at what time in the evolutionary history of plants did vascular systems likely first evolve?

425 mya

Intestinal gas is evidence of active _________ in one's digestive tract.


How is the merging of continents to form Pangaea believed to have altered Earth's environments at the end of the Paleozoic era?

Shallow coastal areas were drained, leading to the extinction of many marine species

Speciation without geographic isolation is called ________ speciation.


Kelp, a seaweed that is anchored to the seafloor by root-like structures and can grow to heights of 60 m, is a kind of

brown alga

Which of the following options correctly represents the most likely sequence of the evolution of plants, from earliest to most recent?

bryophytes, seedless vascular plants, gymnospersms, angiosperms

Which part of this figure represents the anther?

structure A, anther looks like two beans put together

Frequently, a group of related species will each have a unique courtship ritual that must be performed correctly for both partners to be willing to mate. Such a ritual constitutes a _______, _________ reproductive barrier.

behavioral ....... prezygotic

Over the past 400 years, humans have documented the extinction of more than _______ species. This modern rate of species extinction is estimated to be _________ the normal extinction rate seen in the fossil record.

1,000 .... over 100 times greater than


are the only prokaryotes with plantlike oxygen-generating photosynthesis

Which of the following statements is not consistent with Darwin's theory of natural selection?

Individual organisms exhibit genetic change during their life spans to better fit their environment

Dinoflagellates are best described as

marine and freshwater algae that can produce harmful red tides

How can the success of one group of organisms promote the adaptive radiation of a second group?

by providing new food resources, habitats, etc. for the second group

Which level in the hierarchy shown is a community?

level C - all organisms in the savannah

According to the figure, green alga resulted from _______ and Euglena resulted from ________.

primary endosymbiosis .... both primary and secondary endosymbiosis

According to this figure, during what time frame was there an adaptive radiation of eutherians?

from 100 million years ago to the present

In plants, the vascular tissue made of dead cells that transport water and minerals from the roots is called


The ripened ovary of a flower, which is adapted to disperse seeds, is called a


Which of the following statements about genetics is true?

Differences among organisms reflect different nucleotide sequences in their DNA

If all of Earth's history were compressed into an hour, humans would first appear less than

1 second ago

Which of the following types of reproductive barriers separates two flowering plant species that could interbreed except that one has a deep flower tube and is pollinated by bumblebees, whereas the other has a short, narrow flower tube and is pollinated by honeybees?

mechanical isolation

Uplift and formation of a mountain range divides a freshwater snail species into two isolated populations. Erosion eventually lowers the mountain range and brings the two populations together again, but when they made, the resulting hybrids all produce sterile young. This scenario is an example of

allopatric speciation

Which of the following statements about evolution is true?

evolution can result in adaptations

The ________ suggests that speciation occurs in brief spurts

punctuated equilibrium model

Over the past 500 million years, there have been _____ mass extinctions and each time, at least _______ 50% of the species on Earth became extinct.

five .... 50%

The majority of plant species today are


Mass extinctions

remove well-adapted species and groups from the Earth, so that it may take millions of years for species diversity to recover

Which of the following would a biologist describe as micro-evolution?

a change in the gene pool of a population from one generation to the next

Heterotrophic eukaryotes that digest their food externally and absorb the small molecules are referred to as


The feathers of Archaeopteryx may have been used for flight. However, it's likely that their original function was for


A mushroom

is an above-ground reproductive structure connected to a mycelium

Speciation, or the formation of new species, is

responsible for the diversity of life

The three diseases that represent high-priority threats as biological weapons today are

anthrax, plague, and botulinum toxin

Life is organized in a hierarchical fashion. Which of the following sequences correctly lists that hierarchy from least inclusive to most inclusive?

MOCTOOOPCE molecule, organelle, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism, population, community, ecosystem

Students that evolved from the same structure in a common ancestor are


Which two groups of protists produce hard mineralized skeletal structures or cell walls that contribute to marine sediments and form fossils?

foraminiferans and radiolarians

Which of the following statements regarding the definition of species is false?

The morphological species concept relies upon comparing the DNA sequences of organisms

What kind of entity is a lichen?

an association between a fungus and cyanobacteria or green algae

Your instructor asks you to look into your microscope to see a prokaryotic cell. You will be looking for a cell that

has a nucleus

The Monterey pine and the Bishop's pine inhabit some of the same areas of central California. The Monterey pine releases pollen in February, while the Bishop's pine does so in April. This is an example of _______


Eukaryotes are ________ prokaryotes.

more ancient than

The bacteria used in this bio-remediation procedure are


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