Hebrew Bible Final

179 terms by kpadden12

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722 B.C.E.:

FALL AND EXILE OF NORTHERN KINGDOM OF ISRAEL TO THE ASSYRIANS.

597 B.C.E.:

FALL OF JUDAH AND JERUSALEM. FIRST WAVE OF EXILES (UPPER CLASS).

587/586 B.C.E.:

JUDAH REBELS AND AS A RESULT NEBEKANEZZER LEADS SIEGE OF JERUSALEM DESTROYING CITY AND TEMPLE. TAKES KING ZEBEKIAH AFTER HIS KIDS HAVE KILLED IN FRONT OF HIM. BEGINNING OF EXILE AND END OF DAVIDIC MONARCY.

539 B.C.E.:

CYRUS II CONQUERS BABYLON AND RESTORES EXILED PEOPLE TO HOMELANDS, REPATRIATION OF PROMISED LAND.

515 B.C.E.:

SECOND TEMPLE FINISHED

Abimelech:

Son of Gideon, kills all of his brothers except the youngest, Jotham. Establishes himself as king in Schechem (wear tribes reaffirmed the Covenant). Yahweh sends an evil spirt that kills him and burns the tower of Shcechem. Shows Yahweh alone is Israel's king (if a king is to be chosen it is by divine prerogative).

Absalom:

Brother of Tamar who is raped by Amnon, which leads to him killing Amnon and being forced to flee the court. Joab (David's General) talks David into allowing him to return, and then leads revolt and anoints himself King at Hebron forcing David to flee. He is ultimately defeated and killed by Joab.

Adonijah:

Oldest surving son at end of David's reign and trys to get anointed King (supported by Joab and priest Abiathar). He loses out to Solomon and him and his supporters are taken out by Solomon after he is crowned King (1 Kings).

Agag the Amalekite:

Amalekite king who is captured by Saul, but his life his spared. This leads to Saul losing the crown and then Samuel would kill him ( 1 Samuel).

Ahab:

King of Israel (871-852). Married Jezebel (daughter of king of Tyre) who for the Deuteronomist Historian is the Quintessence of evil.

Ahasuerus/Xerxes(1 Kings):

Persian King believed to be the King depicted in the Book of Esther. Served 486-465 BCE. However, a lot of the historical details don't actually match (Mordecai exiled in first wave with Ezra, Persian kng can only marry within royal family) more symbolic of a generic foreign king. Seen as comical cant command wife, easily convinced.

Ahaz:

King of Judah, refused to join Israel kingdom in rebelling against Assyria, so Israel and Aram lay siege to Jerusalem. Instead of trust in YHWH he sought assistance from Tiglath-pileser (2 Kings) and submitted to being his vassal and paying tribute. This goes against Isaiah's advice and shows a lack of trust in YHWH. Isaiah to try and convince Ahaz to trust in YHWH uses birth of child Emmanuel to interperate as God is with us to save us, but after Ahaz submits to Assyria its interpreted as God is with us to punish us.

Ahijah the prophet:

tells Jeroboam that he will inherit the kingdom by tearing his clothes into 12 pieces and giving 10 to Jeroboam.

Alexander the Great:

Conquered the Persians and after his death divided land amongst his 10 generals including Israel. Brought on the hellunization period.

Allegorical interpretation:

greater meaning to bible then literal translation (spiritual sense, moral sense, analogical sense).

Amalekites:

Enemy nation of Israel, Saul leads an invasion and captures King Agag (1 Samuel) but lets him live and takes there cattle and livestock (going against YHWH's commands to destroy everything) and as a result loses the crown. Samuel would then kill Agag.

Amnon:

Oldest Son of David, who rapes his half-sister Tamar after being convinced to do so by his cousin Jonadab. He lures her in by pretending to be sick after having her cook and feed him special food. Absalolom, Temar's full brother, will avenge this by having his servants kill Amnon at a feast.

Amos:

Prophet of reversals (Book of Amos) uses the phrase "Hear this word" and "Woe". Is from the South but does much of his preaching in Israel around 750 BCE. Was a wealthy sheep herder taken from his job unwillingly by a Divine summons (not a professional prophet). Uses oracles to condemn 6 neighboring nations for violation of covenant (nationalistic enthusiasm). Then condemns all of Israel (entire 12 tribes) as being more guilty because of its unique relationship ("You I have known"). He sees injustice to the poor, women, bottom of Society. Gap in prosperity between few rich and majority poor. Takes place during time when Assyria is weak.

Ancient One/Ancient of Days:

Name for God in Daniel, emphasizes that God is eternal.

Antiochus IV/Antiochus Epiphanes:

Greek emperor that tried to Helluncize Jerusalem (outlawed circumcision, statues in temple, build gyms). His moves led to the Maccabean revolt, a surprise attack allowed them to take the city although the greeks would eventually reestablish control.

Apocalyptic:

A genre of literature in which details concerning the end-time are revealed by a heavenly messenger or angel (as seen in Daniel, Esdras, Ezekiel, Isaiah, Joel, Malachi, Revelation). 7 characteristics; A revelation to a designated human by a heavenly messenger in a vision or dream. A detailed explication of the past and present, often in coded language, a description of the end-time along with a chronology indicating when it will occur (near future). A pronounced ualism contrasting good and evil, light and dark, past and future. Pessimism about the present, but optimism for the future based on hopes of divine victory. Incorporation of Mythic tratdions. Imagery that is surreal, even fantastic, rather than realistic.

Aramaic:

A language originating in ancient Syria that in the second half of the first millennium BCE became used widely throughout the Near East. Parts of the books of Daniel and Ezra are written in Aramaic.

Ark of the Covenant:

The religious symbol of the pre-monarchic confederation of the twelve tribes of Israel, later installed in the Temple n Jerusalem by Solomon in the tenth century BCE. It formed the footstool for the cherubim throne on which Yahweh was thought to be invisibly seated.

Asherah:

fertility deity closely associated with Baal. Alluded to in Hosea's metaphor when he makes YHWH a fertility/sexual deity.

Assimilation:

Fear of blending during the Exiles led to a renewed vigor to canoncize Hebrew text and follow parts of covenant that could be done in Exile. Was also reason for prohibition of marrying foreigners (Ezra).

Assyrian Empire:

900-600 BCE systematic conquering. Force vassals to pledge loyalty and pay heavy taxes, but could maintain some independence. Whenever Assyrian king was weak would rebel and the rebellion failed would lose independence.

Baal:

The Canaanite storm-god who in Ugaritic myth defeats Sea and Death. In the Bible, worship of Baal is condemned but frequently practiced. Often worshipped in times of draught, and this worship would lead to Judges being raised up.

Babylonian Empire:

Empire defeated the Egyptians and forced Israelites into slavery, factors of their culture became intertwined with israelites.

Babylonian Exile:

Exiled in 597-539 BCE. Forced Jews to place greater emphasis on maintaining Jewish identity and recording there culture. Came to Believe God was universal and Mobil (able to be found outside of temple). Keep covenant anyway they can to maintain identity and atone for past sins. Prayer begins to become important with beginings of Synagogues..

Bathsheba:

Mother of Solomon, David sleeps with her while she is married, and then arranges for her husband to be killed in battle. She is instrumental along with Nathan in securing that Solomon is selected as heir to throne (despite not being oldest).

Behemoth and Leviathan

Mythological beast mentioned in Job. Beasts of Chaos that can only be controlled by God.

Bethel and Dan:

Religious sites erect in North following schism and is where the offending gold calves will be built.

Bildad, Eliphaz, Zophar:

Job's friends, believe that Job must have sinned to deserve such punishment from God. Berate Job for refusing to admit sin, but also don't know which sin Job committed. Represent traditional view of sin and punishment.

Boaz:

Cousin of Naomi in the Book of Ruth, he looks out for Ruth allows her to get enough food for herself and Naomi and eventually marries her as his duty for next in kin.

Book of the Twelve:

the twelve minor prophets that also consist of the last twelve books of the Old Testament. Book of Hosea, Book of Joel, Book of Amos, Book of Obadiah, Book of Jonah, Book of Micah, Book of Nahum, Book of Habakkuk, Book of Zephaniah, Book of Haggai, Book of Zechariah, and Book of Malachi

Call Narrative:

How prophets are chosen to serve as God's mouthpiece. Often come from modest or unlikely origins. Prophets often Modest and shocked to be summoned by the lord. Prophet will protest due to some perceived defect.

Canon:

A list of the books considered scripture by a religious group.

Chaldeans:

Another name for the Babylonian Empire.

Circumcision:

The ceremonial removal of the foreskin of the penis. According to Genesis 17.9-14, it is the sign of the covenant between God and Abraham and is to be performed on all of Abraham's male descendants on the 8th day after birth. Emphasized during the exile as a way to maintain Jewish identity away from the Temple.

City of David:

Another name for Jerusalem, especially the ancient pre-Israelite city that King David captured and made his capital in the early tenth century BCE. In later tradition, it is also used of Bethlehem, David's birthplace.

Covenant of Grant

The Davidic Covenant. It is a gift that a greater king would reward a lower king/subject with due to their loyalty and service. Unconditional.

Covenant Lawsuit/rib:

A genre used by the prophets in which Israel is put on trial by Yahweh for having violated its covenant with him.

Cyrus II of Persia:

539 BCE conquers Babylon. Believes local political entities should be followed, cultivates local autonomy and restores exiled people to original homeland. Subsidized restoration of local temple and returns stolen artifacts to people. Ezra applies this to Judah.

Cyrus Cylinder:

Ancient pot detailing Cyrus's reign seen as corroboration of the reapatriation of the Jews following the Babylonian exile (as described in Ezra). Though it makes no explicit mention of the Jewish people.

Daniel:

Written 2nd century BCE (Hellenistic period), some stories 4- 3rd century during Persian period. Not historical due to many chronology problems. 1-6 Idealization of living in Exile, God still in control even over foreign kings.7-12 is Apocalyptic. Severe persecution to the righteous, but this is all part of Gods plan. Introduction of idea that Salvation is going to be even better because of punishment. Origins of idea of heaven. Developed system of Angels (Gabrial shows Daniel visions and helps him interpret them, Michael) and used 4 animal metaphor. Daniel 12 only mention of resurrection.

Darius I of Persia:

Successor to Belshazzar made Daniel a Governer, had Daniel thrown into Lions den, then decreed every must fear the God of Daniel.

David:

Youngest son of a Shepard (1 Samuel). Gold standard for all Israeli Kings due to his model faith in YHWH. David would gain Sauls love as a musician in his court when his young, then gains notoriety by defeating Goliath after Saul himself refuses to fight (Refuses armor as he believes YHWH will protect him). Despite support from Jonathan (birth heir) and Michal David is forced to flee to Philistine where he serves as a mercenary. Is able to unite nation and establish Jeruselam as capital. Has faults (Bathsheba, killings while in Philistine).

Davidic Covenant:

The covenant between Yahweh and David, which guaranteed the divine protection of the dynasty that David founded and of Jerusalem, its capital city. A treaty of grant (if someone does good service to the King, a king would reward his subject). Davidic dynasty, Jerusalem, and Temple serve to lend legitimacy to each other. Symbol of God's infinite loyalty and support.

The Day of YHWH:

A PHRASE USED BY THE PROPHETS, TO DESCRIBE YAHWEH'S FIGHTING AGAINST HIS ENEMIES. IN APOCALYPTIC LITERTURE IT IS USED OF THE FINAL BATTLE BETEWEEN GOOD AND EVIL.

Deuteronomistic History:

According to modern scholars, the core of the books of Joshua, Judges, 1 and 2 Samuel, and 1 and 2 Kings, which form a narrative history of Israel in the Promised Land. It was produced in several editions form the late eighth to the sixth centuries BCE by the Deuteronomistic Historians, who were informed by the principles of the book of Deuteronomy. Shapes retlling of Israelite history based on Deuteronomy servings as a constitution (Follow covenant → reward, stray→punished by God). Remind people of ollustrious roots and proud history, and also warn them of why they lost everything.

Deuterocanonical Works:

Also known as Apocrypha. Jewish religious writings of the Hellenistic and Roman periods that are not considered part of the Bible by Jews and Protestants, but are part of the canons of Roman Catholic and Orthodox Churches.

Diaspora:

Litterally, scattering or dispersion, used to refer to exiles from Judah to Babylonia in the early sixth century BCE, and subsequently for any Jews living outside of Israel. Pockets of Jewish communities scatter abroad, who chose to remain in exile.

Diaspora Novella:

Purpose to teach Jews how to live a productive life while living in Diaspora. Can still retain Jewish identity living Abroad. As evidence by Daniel and Esther.

Dietary Laws:

Clean vs. Unclean. Animals listed that can be eaten listed in Leviticus. Some believe origins were for health reasons, some think to maintain cultural uniqueness, or as Mary Douglas argue is based on the pure categories that must be kept distinct. (Seafood swims not walks so no shellfish, animals that chew cud with divided hooves permissible, but those that chew cud with hout divided claws not). Animals that mix categories are impure and this descends to fields and clothing.

Egyptian Love Poetry:

Many believe includes Solomon's Song of Song's. Use lush imagery, unmarried young lovers refer to each other as brother and sister.

Eli:

Samuel's mother Hannah is barren and she prayers for a child and when she has him she gives him to the lord to be raised under the Priest Eli. Eli is first to recognize God summoning Samuel, and tells him how to answer the call.

Eliab:

eldest son of Jesse, and older brother of David. Was tall and had good features, but not right Heart to be king of Israel according to Samuel. Argues with David before he goes to battle with Goliath.

End of Days

Idea presented in Daniel that there is going to be this day where all the evil doers will be punished, and the righteous will be rewarded. Helps account for why not all righteous people are rewarded right away.

Endogamy:

The custom of marrying within one's ethnic or religious group.

Enkidu:

In the epic of Gilgamesh, the wild man created by the gods to distract Gilgamesh from his antisocial activities. Gilgamesh and Enkidu became friends, and Enkidu's death motivated Gilgamesh to seek immortality. His friendship to Gilgamesh similar to Jonathan's to David

Ephod:

A woolen garment warn by priests that is decorated with semi-precious stones some engraved with the 12 tribes of Israel, and attached to it were the Urim and Thummim.

Ephraim:

largest tribe in the North, also used as a synonym for northern kingdom of Israel. Named for eledest son of Joseph.

Epic of Gilgamesh

Babylonian Epic that shows a demigod's conquests along with Enkidu as Gilgamesh seeks to be immortal and leave behind his great legacy, before ultimately realizing his city is his legacy.

Eschatology:

the study of the end times as predicted in Daniel.

Esther/Hadassah:

Written 4th -3rd century BCE marked by frequent use of Hyperbole, written to show how to live productive life abroad. Hebrew version there is no mention of God or protagonists even doing covenantal things (disregard dietary laws, don't pray). Risks her life to go before King and crafts plot of feasts to alert King of Haman's plot. Story shows Jews will survive even when odds are stacked against them. To survive is to do so at your own risk. God found in coincidences. Also warning to people in Diaspora, you are a minority, people will hate you.

Exogamy:

marrying outside of the social group. Was very much disapproved of although there are some examples (Ruth).

Ezekiel:

Part of first deportation 597-571 BCE, Ministry takes place in Exile. Has seizing visions where God inhibits his body (eats scroll, lays on his side for 360 days, digs through wall). 593 bce has vision where he sees merkevah (ark on wheels) leave before Temple was destroyed (temple was just an empty shell)→YHWH's throne is not stationary, can find God outside of Temple and Jerusalem. Can find God in written text (eating scroll).

Ezra:

Prophet during repatriation. Extremely upset that people who had returned had intermarried with foreighners→sents awy all foreign wives and their children.

Former Prophets:

In Jewish tradition, the first division of the Prophets, comprising the books of Joshua, Judges, 1 and 2 Samuel, 1 and 2 Kings.

Four Beasts (Daniel 7):

Winged Lion=Babylon, Bear=Median Empire, Leopard with 4 wings and 4 heads=Persians, Nambeless Beast with 10 horns, iron teeth=greeks (10 horns represent 10 generals that divide land following Alexander's death, small arrogant horn with eyes was Antiochus).

Gideon/Jerubbaal:

Was a Major Judge with humble, reluctant origins (lowest of his clan, echoes Moses) from Manassah, leads people to victory over midianites, makes a golden ephod. (Book of Judges 6-9). Original name reinterpreted as one who contends with Baal. Refuses to become a king and start a dynasty thus acknowledging divine rule. Shows YHWH must be worshiped, he alone is Israel's king, and if there is a king it can olny be chosen by YHWH.

Gilgamesh:

The hero of the Mesopotamian epic named for him, who with Enkidu travels widely and ultimately meets Utnapishtim.

Golden Calves:

Statues built at Bethel and Dan in Israel, that became a sign of the North's inability to follow the covenant to many southerners.

Goliath:

Philistine champion who is defeated by David. Asks David to approach him and fight Hand to Hand but David refuses and strikes him from a distance with a sling shot (seen as either fight dirty, or innovative).

Gomer bat-Diblaim:

Hosea's adulterous wife is seen as a metaphor for israel.

Greek Esther:

6 verses added in the greek version to deal with issues of lack of God and religious practices in hebrew version. Add God coming to Mordecai in a dream predicting whats going to happen. Mordecai prays for Esterh. Esther prays before confronting Xerces. Also adds scene where Ester faints.

Haman the Agagite:

Aid to Xerces that plots to kill all of the Jews after Mordecai refuses to bow down to him after his promotion. Aspires to become top aide and is so confident in his plan Builds 50 ft Gallow that will be used to hang Mordecai, but is ironically used to hang him.

Hannah:

Samuels Mother. In pattern of Matriarchs is barren and prays to God for a child and promises to dedicate the child to God. Becomes Pregnant with Samuel and Gives him to the Priest Eli to raise.

Hezekiah:

"did what was right in front of the lord" destroyed other alters and icons. Rebelled against Assyra, was a good king (2 Kings). Rabshakeh warns that Jerusalem will be destroyed and instead of trusting Yahweh would protect them he goes into mourning, does not have true faith.

Hezekiah's Tunnel:

A 1700 ft long tunnel under the city of David constructed during the reign of King Hesekiah of Judah in the late 8th century BCE. Its function was to divert the waters flowing from the Gihon Springs to a location within the city wall.

High Place:

A place to worship and to give offerings outside of town often marked by a wooden post. Seen by Ramah with Samuel. Later prophets will see them as being illegitimate and breaking the covenant after the construction of the Temple.

Hosea:

(750-722 BCE) end of weak period in Assyria (Tiglath-pileser III reign just beginning). Begins with metaphor of him marrying an adulterous wife (Israel) (don't call me my baal). Condemns people from worshipping foreign gods, no longer have personal relationship with God.

"The House of David"

Those that trace their lineage to David and continue the davidic dynasty as promised by the davidic covenant.

Immanuel:

The child whose birth and early life were signs from God to Ahaz, king of Judah, during the Syro-Ephraimitie War (1 Isaiah 7). He was probably the child of the prophet Isaiah and his wife, who was also a prophet. His name at first God is with them to save them, then God is with them to punish them through the War.

Inviolability of Jerusalem:

Staple of Zion theology, as displayed by 1 Isaiah. God's chosen spot on Earth, so he will never let it fall. Leads to Identity crisis with the Babylonian exile.

First Isaiah:

Isaiah 1-39, wrote during the 8th century BCE. Southern prophet preaching to the south (742-701 BCE). Called when Uzziah was King, has vision at temple where roof is blown off and he sees the throne of YHWH (dominating whole world from throne). Model of Zion theology. Very politically involved (Kings advisor). When facing threat proper reaction is to stay calm and wait for YHWH.

Jebusites:

Inhabited and built Jerusalem prior to King David conquering it in 1003 BCE

Jehoiakim II:

King of Judah son of King Josiah. Allied with Egyptians during Babylonian Egyptian war, led to Babylonians laying siege to Jerusalem and the Start of the Exile. Burnet Prophecy of Jeremiah, and executed another prophet that spoke against him.

Jeremiah:

Son of priest (politically connected family). Yahweh knew him before he was born, but questions summons as he cant speak eloquently (YHWH will put his words into his mouth). Negative about current state of affairs, doesn't believe in invincibility of Temple "Don't imagaine because you have the temple this will be your defense). Letter of Jeremish sent own people into Exile, not sign of weakness (losing out to Babylon God), but power affects entire universe. Will return after 70 years.

Jeremiah's Temple Sermon

Criticizes the jewish people for their sin and beliefs that the Temple can not be destroyed. The Temple will only survive if you do good, if you continue to sin it will be destroyed. Actually following the covenant is more important than the physical temple.

Jeroboam I:

Ephromite in charge of the forced labor that's Soloman tasks with building. Will become first king of Israel in the North after being told by Ahijah. Life bares similarities to Moses (taken in by King of Egypt).

Jerusalem

Center of Zion theology.

Jesse:

Father of David (his youngest son) 1 Samuel. Sent David and Gifts to cheer Saul with his harp playing, also sent David and Gifts to battlefield that led to his defeat of Goliath.

Jew/Jewish:

stems from Yehudi or inhabitant of Judah (originally specific tribe→ southern kingdom). After Exile begins to refer to all of the Israelite people as first used in the book of Esther.

Jezebel:

Tyrian Princess who married King Ahab. Controlled local political processes (Arranged for Naboth's execution on false charges 1 Kings). For revolt succeed after Ahab's death she had to be eliminated. DH sees her as essence of evil.

Joab:

(2 Samuel - 1 Kings) Commander of King David's army. His brother was killed by Abner → killing abner against David's wishes. Helped Absalom return, and then killed him because David couldn't during Absolom's revolt. Supported Adonijah to replace David rather than Solomon is then killed by Solomon at David's request.

Job:

Was a righteous man that has great Tragedy happen to him due to God having a bet with Satan. Job continues to be faithful through losing wealth, and health. Yahweh answers Job for why things happen is the workings of God are far too complex for Humans to even begin to comprehend. Human justice does not apply to God, God is beyond Human conception. Challenges notion that if you do well rewarded, and if you do bad punished.

Jonathan:

Oldest Son of Saul and heir to throne, yet supports David to be heir. Great friend of David, and helps David flee the court before Saul can kill him.

Josiah:

2 Kings 22, embodies ideals of Deuteronomist Historian for a Judah King. Horified by Israel's sins after discovering a book interpreting the Sinai Covenant (Deuteronomy) and seeks to reform people during time of Assyrian weakness. Rules after Israel has fallen.

Josiah's Reforms:

Inspired by finding book of law (Deuteronomy). Centralizzation of religion at Jerusalem (gets rid of other worship sites), Destroying all shrines of Baal (only worship YHWH), Seeks to reunite whats left of N. with S.

Jotham's Parable:

Parable of trees, goes through a series of trees all who have too important jobs to become a king, before settling on the bramble. Judges 9, Shows problems with kings as the bramble the lowest most useless tree becomes king. Kings unravel society and goes against their theological beliefs.

Judah:

the name of one of Jacob's sons, the ancestor of the tribe of Judah. Theis tribe dominated the southern region of what would become the kingdom of Judah (later called Judea).

Ketuvim/ketubim/The Writings):

Signifies the third part of the bible in the Jewish tradition, the writings.

Kinsman Redeemer:

closest male relative that had duty according to Hebrew law to look after and protect a relative in need (Boaz in story of Ruth

Latter Prophets:

In Jewish tradition, the second part of the Prophets, comprising the books of Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Ezekiel and the Book of the Twelve (Minor Prophets)

Law of the King:

(Deuteronomy 17) King Cant be greedy (naturally become greedy), foreign (fear of foreign influence, just released from a foreign king, slavery). Trying to reconcile covenant of Sinai (YHWH is king don't need anyone else) with the people's desires for a human king.

Maccabean Revolt:

164 BCE. Antiochus made circumcision illegal and angered jews. Trying to Hellunucize Jerusalem (put up statues in the Temple, built a gym, etc...).

Major Prophets:

In modern scholarship, the books of Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Ezekiel, so called because of therir relative length compared to the shorter books of the Minor Prophets. In Christian tradition, the books of lamentations and Daniel have often been included under this heading.

mashal/proverb:

Hebrew for proverbs. Collection of wisdom passed down, developed in King's court, and also taken from international tradition (Egypt). Common sense advice on how to live the good life.

Masoretic Text:

The traditional medieval text of the Hebrew Bible. Written in 11th century CE is text which all other Hebrew biblical translations are based on.

Merkevah/Divine Chariot:

vision of a chariot by Ezekial, his inaugural vision. He sees four living creatures (Cherubim), guardian for Yahweh's throne. Each has four faces and four wings. He hears the divine voice although he never sees God directly.

Mesha Stele/Moabite Stone:

An inscribed monument erected by the Moabite king Mesha in the mid-9th century BCE celebrating his victory over the Israelites.

Messiah:

Derived from the Hebrew word mashiah, meaning "anointed one," this term is used in the Hebrew Bible to refer to past and present kings and priests who had been anointed. IN later Jewish and in Christian traditions, it is used of a future leader to be sent by God.

Michal:

Daughter of Saul she loved David and was promised to him (1 Samuel). Chose David over her father (helped him escape). She was given away during his exile, but David demander her back when he became King against her will. Would die childless.

Minimalists vs. Maximalists:

Only trust from Bible what can be verified as fact (Minimal evidence David was powerful king due to lack of archeological evidence, probably more mythic story). Maximalist View accepts the Biblical view of Israel's history.

Minor Prophets:

In modern scholarship, the twelve shorter prophetic books, from Hosea through Malachi.

Monotheism:

Belief in one God. Begins to develop Post Exile as Jews come to see God as being Universally powerful and having no equal. Shown in Daniel where God now has Angels to do his bidding on Earth.

Mordecai:

Esther's cousin/father figure. Analagous to Joseph Unrewarded for saving Kings life after hearing of a plot to assassinate him. Refuses to bow down to Haman and as a result Haman conspires to kill all Jews. Goes into preemptive mourning and tells Esther she needs to stand up for her people (who knows perhaps you come to royal office for just such a time). Is eventually rewarded (Ironically gains Haman's position and Haman and his family is killed).

Mount Carmel:

site where Elijah challenges the 450 prophets of Baal to see whose deity is superior (1 Kings). The contest was to see which God could light a burnt offering and after Elijah wins he announces the end of a draught.

Mount Moriah:

location of the sacrifice of Isaac. 2 Chronicles site of Jerusalem where Solomon would build the Lord's house. Site where lord appeared to David at Arunah's threshing floor which David purchased from him

Naboth's Vineyard:

Owned a vineyard near Ahab's palace, which Ahab desired for an herb garden, when he is unable to do so he is depressed and his wife Jesebaal has Naboth killed by a mock trial and takes the land. Elijah then visits Ahab pronouncing his doom but Ahab humbles himself and the destruction instead occurs to his son Joram.

Naomi:

Mother in law to Ruth, and cousin to Boaz. Is bitter at the Lord for her misfortune (Mara). However, she helps Ruth meet and marry Boaz and when they have a son she cares for him.

Nathan:

2 Samuel prophet who served as an advisor in the court. Announced to David his covenant with God. Reprimanded David over his affair with Bathsheba. 1 Kings tells Dying David plan of Adonijah's plot resulting in Solomon being named king. Played a key part in the coronation of Solomon

Nathan's Parable:

Uses Parable of a rich man with many flocks of sheep and a poor man who had one sheep he loved very much. When a traveler visited the rich man he took the poor mans one sheep and prepared for the Traveler. Done to show sin in David's actions with Bathsheba. As a result David will always have to fight and cant build the Temple.

Nebuchadrezzar:

Reigned form 604-563 BCE. Babylonian King that leads sacking of Jerusalem/Temple

Nehemiah:

Nehemiah was Governor of the new state of Judah. Was King's cupbearer but sought to go to Jerusalem to repair it. His tour shows the disrepair of the city (a small city with only a few thousand people). Began reconstruction of walls, but faced opposition especially from neighboring tribes.

"New Covenant":

Relates to teachings of Jeremiah, immutability of God's covenant with Israel. Israel must rededicate themselves to living a life in union with the Covenant.

"New Exodus":

Isaiah 2 compares the Exile to Babylon with the Exodus in Egypt as a way of convincing people of the importance of returning to the holy land.

Omri:

Dynasty of Omri consisted of four king sin mid 9th century and was most powerful in history of the North. Moved capital to Samaria (1 Kings). Father of Ahab built lavish royal city.

Persian Empire:

Conquered the Babylonians in 538 BCE, ruled land until the Greeks took over. Sent Israeli people back to their homeland. Zorroastrianism, or dualistic with a constant war between God and Evil God (demons vs. God and Angels). Influence begins to be felt in later writings.

Philistines:

One group of the Sea Peoples. In the late second millennium BCE, having failed to conquer the eEgyptians, they settled on the southeast coast of the Mediterranean where they vied with Israel for the control of Canaan. Palestine is derived rom their name.

(The Book of) Proverbs:

Collection of wisdom passed down, developed in King's court, and also taken from international tradition (Egypt). Common sense advice on how to live the good life.

Psalm 137:

How can we sing YHWH's song in a foreign land, sense of public shaming and crisis. How can you survive without the Temple. Dealing with ramifications of exile. (DH would reply deserved punishment, Jeremiah there will be a new covenant).

Purim:

Holiday celebrated on 14th of Adar, with its origins described in Esther

Qohelet/Ecclesiastes

A royal figure (possibly Solomon). "All is vanity" The world is absurd, world contains an infinite cycle in spite of humanity. No permanent reward for righteous, (What do people gain from work? we are all going to die). Solution is to "Eat, Drink, and be merry".

Rehoboam:

King of Judah, son of Solomon. Refused to listen to elders advice and instead use force and gave northern tribes more work for complaining. This led to the great schism.

Royal Ideology:

2 Samuel 7-17. A cluster of concepts that both derived from and supported and shaped the institution of the monarchy. God doesn't want David to build his house, but tells him his successor will. David's dynast will continue even if his successors don't match him, his covenant is unconditional. David and God had a special father son relationship. King became essential mediator between people and God as he was God's son.

Ruth the Moabite:

Daughter in law to Naomi that shows great loyalty to her when she follows Naomi to the homeland. At Naomi's suggestion seduces and marries Boaz (according to proper custom). Would be matriarch of David, story shows even though foreigner she is a worthy matriarch. Variation of Betrothal type scene. Book of Ruth.

Sabbath:

The day of rest, the seventh day of the week. The term can also be used for longer periods of time, as in a "sabbatical year."

Samaria:

The capital of the northern kingdom of Israel from the early 9th century to 722 BCE, whin it fell to the Assyrians. Subsequently, Samaria was used as the name of the region in which the city was located.

Samuel:

Prophet was a mouth piece for God (Thus says YHWH...). Israelites ask him for a King in 1 Samuel "like other nations"→ People have rejected YHWH leads to Samuel warning the people what will happen with a King (take things that aren't his).

the satan:

member of divine council that challenges God to make Job prove his piety. Believes Job is only good and faithful to God because he will get rewarded with wealth and good health.

Saul:

First King 1 Samuel, Handsome Shepard from small tribe of Benjamin. Has military success and delivers people from enemies. Loses his dynasty when he performs a sacrifice without waiting for Samuel, and then himself is rejected when he fails to kill King Agag "YHWH was sorry he had made Saul King". Doomed to fail.

Scribe

Wrote down and canonized the bible. A school of thought.

Second Isaiah/Deutero-Isaiah):

40-55 of the book of Isaiah, dated to the mid 6th century BCE. Also known as Deutero-Isaiah. Goal to convince people living in Babylon to return to the Promised land. Monotheistic view of Yahweh (nothing compares to God). Yahweh is going to restore Zion, punishment is over. Compares Exile to exodus when people lived in Egypt.

Second Temple:

The temple completed in 515 BCE to replace the Temple of Solomon, which had been destroyed by the Babylonians in 586. Its construction marked by in fighting and isn't as grand as first version. Those that were alive to see first temple cry when second one is finished. Lasts from late 6th century BCE to 70 CE when Jerusalem and the Temple are captured by Romans and destroyed.

Second Temple Period:

Prophets had predicted reurn would be grand event; however, not true. Those that returned were marked by infighting and the new temple wasn't to its former glory. Many people chose to remain living outside the land in Disaporah.

Sennacherib:

Assyrian King sieges Judah and Hezekiah. Sieges, but never takes the city in the bible its credited to Zion theology as YHWH sends Angel that kills thousands of their men forcing them to retreat.

Sennacherib Prism:

Early external collaboration of event in Hebrew Bible. Details how they capture many smaller cities of Judah, gives away much of their land, and imposes a heavy tax on Judah as punishment for holding hostage King Padi. Makes mission seem much more successful than Biblical version.

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