Sociology Test 1

Created by racheladcock 

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Chapters 1 & 3

1.Have and have nots 2.Exploitation 3. Struggle for scarce resources

The three main parts of the Conflict Theory

1.Parts of society serve Functions 2.Interdependent parts 3.Society is like a living organism

The three main parts of the Functionalism

1.day to day interactions 2.signs, symbols, and patterns 3.social meaning arises through social interaction

The three main parts of the Symbolic Interaction

Karl Marx

Sociologist responsible for conflict theory

Emile Durkheim

Sociologist responsible for funtionalism

George Herbert Mead

Sociologist responsible for Symbolic Interaction

vineyard

Conflict theory- view from window

village

Functionalism- view from window

meadow

symbolic interaction- view from window

second self

something/someone we create online

sociology

systematic study of human behavior, social groups, and society

sociology

society and it's influence on human groups

sociological imagination

understanding our lives in the context of society

sociology

views human behavior in societal context which reveals the underlying basis for many social issues

C. Wright Mills

the man responsible for the theory of sociological imagination

sociological imagination

the ability to see societal patterns that influence individual and group life

agents of socialization

what molds and shapes us

Durkheim

performed the first systematic social study of suicide

social integration

the higher the degree of ________________ the lower the suicide rate

8

children involved with media ______ hours a day

150

sociology developed _______ years ago

August Comte

father of sociology

positivism

being able to analyze society using the same systematic process as scientists who study the natural world

Harriet Martineau

woman sociologist- shows a change in the culture

Herbert Spencer

Gave speeches on sociology as a theory involving the survival of the fittest, where the weak are defective. His speeches appealed to the wealthy and sold out.

Karl Marx

Saw the proletariat being exploited by the bourgeoisie, and developed communism.

Catholics

suicide rates low among _____

mechanical solidarity

rural, close-knit bonds

organic solidarity

looser bonds

Max Weber

Came up with "verstehen"- analysis of interaction. Thought sociological study should be performed among the people

Jane Adams

Wanted to better the lives of those whom she studied

WIlliam Dubois

Wanted to help others, co-founded the NAACP

manifest functions

intended consequences of social institutions

latent functions

unintended consequences of social institutions

Dysfunctions

aspects that disrupt ability of society

Culture

learned set of beliefs, values, norms, and material objects shared by a society or group

George Gerbner

The man did the video, "Crisis of Cultural Environment"

culture

stories and messages that create images that govern our conception of life and our behavior

cultivation

the building and maintenance of images that convey values of society

social imperative

our drive to establish groups of people and mingle with others

critical thinking

objectively assessing ideas, statements, and info

sociological thinking

asking questions and questioning answers, taking a closer look at our social world

mass media

forms of communication that transmit standardized messages to widespread audiences

technomedia

the newer and more personalized info technologies

digital divide

the racial divide on the info highway

social solidarity

a lack of the social bonds developed by individuals

ideal type

a conceptual model or typology constructed from direct observation of a number of specific cases and representing the essential qualities found in those cases

pure sociology

study of society in an effort to understand and explain the natural laws that govern its evolution

applied sociology

uses sociological principles, social ideals, and ethical considerations to improve society

paradigms

sets of assumption and ideas that guide research questions, methods of analysis and interpretation, and the development of theory

microlevel analysis

focuses on day to day interactions of individuals and groups in specific social situations

macrolevel analysis

examines broader social structures and society as a whole

society

people who live in a specific geographic territory, interact with one another, and share many elements of a common culture

sociocultural evolution

process in which societies grow more complex in terms of technology, social structure, and cultural knowledge over time

symbol

anything to which group members assign meaning

beliefs

assertions about the nature of reality

values

shared ideas about what is socially desirable

norms

expectations and rules for proper conduct that guide the behavior of group members

folkways

informal rules and expectations that guide people's everyday behavior

mores

salient norms that people consider essential to the proper working of society

laws

formal rules enacted and enforced by the power of the state, which apply to members of society

taboos

prohibitions against behaviors that most members of a group consider to be so repugnant they are unthinkable

sanctions

penalties or rewards society uses to encourage conformity and punish deviance

culture shock

feelings of confusion and disorientation that occur when a person encounters a very different culture

ethnocentrism

the tendency to evaluate the customs of other groups according to one's own cultural standards

cultural relativism

asks that we evaluate other cultures according to their standards, not ours

subcultures

groups that share many elements of mainstream culture but maintain their own distinctive customs, values, norms, and lifestyles

countercultures

reject the conventional wisdom and standards of behavior of the majority and provide alternatives to mainstream culture

multiculturalism

encourages respect and appreciation for cultural difference

eurocentrism

belief that european cultures have contributed the most to human knowledge and are superior to all others

real culture

what people do in everyday social interaction

cultural lag

inconsistencies within a cultural system, especially in relationship between technology and non-material culture

cultural ecological approach

examines the relationship between culture and its environment

cultural hegemony

domination of cultural industries of elite groups

John Calvin

theologist who came up with the theory that everything is predestined, and our predestiny is revealed through the blessings we recieve

elect

those predestined for heaven

protestant work ethic

John Calvin came up with the __________ ___________ __________

George Ritzer

Theorist who wrote "McDonaldization of Society"

predictability

Just like at a McDonalds, we expect _____________

Max Weber

man responsible for theory of rationalization

rationalization

theory that says there are a set of social action governed by reason, calculation + rational pursuit of one's interest

religion, reason

Rationalization= switch from ____________ to ____________

social order, control

the purpose of norms is to maintain _________ and ___________

sanctions

__________ maintain the norms

social imagination

biography + history

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