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Exam covering lectures 01-20 thru 02-08, chapters 1-2 in book; multiple choice and matching questions worth 76 points

hypothesis

possible explanation for a set of observations or possible answer to a scientific question; a testable prediction

independent variable

variable that is believed to be the cause; the variable that is controlled or manipulated in a controlled experiment

dependent variable

variable that is the effect; the variable that is measured or observed in a controlled experiment

control group

the group in an experiment that is not exposed to the test treatment; it provides a normal standard against which the biologist can compare results of the experimental group

test treatment group

also called experimental group; the group in an experiment that is exposed to the test treatment

theory

a hypothesis that is well supported by scientific data

pseudoscience

a set of claims that seems scientific, but which is based on assumptions not verified by experiments

atom

the basic unit of matter

proton

a subatomic particle that has a positive charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom

neutron

a subatomic particle that has no charge and is found in the nucleus of an atom

electron

a subatomic particle that has a negative charge and is found orbiting around the nucleus of an atom

element

any of the more than 100 known types of atoms (of which 92 occur naturally) that cannot be separated into simpler substances and that singly or in combination constitute all matter

atomic number

the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom

atomic mass

mass of the protons and neutrons in an atom

molecule

a combination of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds

ion

an atom or molecule that is electrically charged (positive or negative), as a result of losing or gaining electrons

ionic bond

a chemical bond in which one atom loses an electron to form a positive ion and the other atom gains an electron to form a negative ion; the bond forms because the oppositely charged particles attack each other

covalent bond

a chemcial bond formed when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons

hydrogen bond

weak chemical bond formed by the attraction of positively charged hydrogen atoms and negatively charged atoms; bond that forms between water molecules and gives water the properties of cohesion and adhesion

polar

describes a molecule that has an uneven distribution of charge, such that the molecule has a positive end and a negative end; these molecules are dissolved in water

non-polar

describes molecules that have an equal distribution of charge, and thus, do not have partial charges associated with their ends; these molecules repel water

cohesion

the intermolecular force that holds together the molecules of the same substance in a solid or liquid form

adhesion

the intermolecular force that allows molecules of different substances to adhere to each other

solvent

a liquid substance capable of dissolving other substances; water is the universal solvent

hydrophilic

describes the properties of a substance that is capable of being dissolved in water; a polar or charged molecule

hydrophobic

describes a substance that is not dissolved in water; a non-polar or neutral molecule

acids

molecules that release hydrogen ions in water

bases

molecules that remove (i.e., bind to) hydrogen ions from water

pH

describes the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution; solutions with high concnetrations of H+ are acids and have a pH less than 7; solutions with low concentrations of H+ are bases and have a pH greater than 7

macromolecule

a large organic molecule, usually a polymer, composed of hundreds or thousands of atoms

hydrocarbons

large organic molecules composed of C-H bonds

monomer

a simple molecule that can combine with other like or unlike molecules to make a polymer; the subunit or building block used to make polymers

polymer

a macromolecule consisting of many similar or identical monomers linked together.

glucose

a monosaccharide sugar that has the molecular formula: C6H12O6; it is the sugar form which circulates in our blood; and it is the monomer used to build larger carbohydrate structures used for energy storage and some structural components of cells

carbohydrate

molecules made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms; macromolecules made of sugars; these include simple sugars, starches, and fiber. All but fiber provide energy.

monosaccharide

a carbohydrate composed of a single sugar monomer; examples: glucose, fructose

disaccharide

a carbohydrate composed of two sugar monomers; examples: sucrose, maltose

polysaccharide

a carbohydrate composed of many sugar monomers; examples: glycogen, cellulose

starch

polysaccarides formed by plants, consisting of chains of hundreds or thousands of glucose molecules

cellulose

a polysaccaride formed by plants, that consists of chains of thousands of beta-linked glucose molecules; indigestable material = fiber

amino acid

the monomer used to build proteins or polypeptides; contain nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms

protein

a macromolecule composed of chains of amino acids; have numerous functions in body

enzyme

specialized proteins that speed up chemical reactions

fatty acid

chains of C-H bonds; monomers used in building fats

glycerol

3 carbon molecule that forms the backbone of triglyceride fats

lipid

macromolecule made from fatty acids; includes fats, steroids, phospholipids

saturated fats

trigylceride fats that are made of 3 fatty acid chains with the maximum number of hydrogens bond to the carbons in the chain; tend to be the form of fats used by animals to store energy; solid at room temperature

unsaturated fats

trigylceride fats that are made of 3 fatty acid chains without the maximum number of hydrogens bond to the carbons in the chain; presence of C double bonds; tend to be the form of fats used by plants to store energy; liquid at room temperature

nucleic acid

macromolecules made from nucleotides; contain a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen containing base; includes molecules like DNA, RNA, ATP

deoxyribonucleic acid

DNA, the nucleic acid used to store genetic information in our cells; contains instructions on how to build proteins

nucleotide

monomer used to build nucleic acids; consists of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen containing base

hydrolysis

process by which macromolecules are broken apart in chemical reactions; involves the addition of a water molecule

dehydration synthesis

process by which monomers are joined together to form macromolecules; involves the removal of a water molecule

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