Problem-Solving

12 terms by lbrandt

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concepts

a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people

prototype

a mental image or best example of a category

algorithm

a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrasts with the usually speedier -- but also more error-prone -- use of heuristics

heuristics

Sets of strategies, rather than strict rules, that act as guidelines for discovery-oriented problem solving.

representative heuristic

judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead one to ignore other relevent information

availability heuristic

estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind, we presume such events are common

anchoring heuristic

an insufficient adjustment up or down from an original starting value when judging the probably value of some event or outcome

insight

a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem

mental set

a tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past

functional fixedness

the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving.

conjunction fallacy

An error that occurs when people estimate that the odds of two uncertain events happening together are greater than the odds of either event happening alone.

gamblers fallacy

belief that the odds of a chance event increase if the event hasn't occurred recently.

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