Psychology Final: Unit 3

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What do permissive and authoritative parents have in common?

??
It's not B, They are both warm and loving. It might be something about communication?

Jean Piaget identified four major stages of cognitive development. In order, they are:

Sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational.

The concept of Zone of Proximal Development (ZDP) is associated with which psychologist?

Vygotsky

Henry Harlow demonstrated that attachment in children was related to

contact comfort

Researchers measure _______ to study the visual preferences and observations of infants

fixation time

Most researchers agree that __________ affect(s) most areas of development

both nature and nurture

The rooting reflex demonstrates and infant's sensitivity to:

touch

An adult who does not park in a handicap parking space because he wished to avoid a pricey ticket is operating at the _______ level

preconventional

According to Piaget, what type of thought is characteristic of mature, adult thinking?

abstract

A newborn is tested for grasp, startle, and sucking responses. These are a measure of:

reflexes

The belief common in adolescence that others are as concerned with our thoughts and behaviors as we are is known as:

an imaginary audience

While Kohlberg maintained that most people do not reach the highest state of moral reasoning, those that do often first demonstrate in which phase of life?

adolescence

People expect a whale to be a fish because it lives in the sea. The recognition that whales are mammals requires a(n) _______ of existing schemas.

accommodation

When Martin Luther King Jr. used passive resistance and violated laws that enforced what he felt was wrong (segregation and discrimination), he demonstrated:

Postconventional reasoning

A two-year old child's family has a pet dog. The child visits a neighbor's house and sees their pet dog. Even though the neighbor's dog is larger and a different color, the child points and says "dog." This demonstrates Piaget's process of:

???
It's not A, adaptation

The prenatal growth stages, in sequential order, are:

germinal, embryonic, and fetal

Programmed senesence is to _______ as wear and tear theory is to ______

heredity; environment

Mary Ainsworth designed a method to test emotional attachment of children in a laboratory environment known as the:

Strange Situation

Seventy-five-year-old Edith has decided to go back to school and is finding it more difficult to solve new problems than when she was young due to a slowing of:

fluid intelligence

According to Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development, which "crisis" are adolescents typically facing?

identity vs. role diffusion

Lawrence Kohlberg's research relied upon the use of:

moral delimmas

You are playing hide-and-seek with your preoperational child. You count to 10 while she hides. You find her sitting in the middle of the room with her eyes closed, believing that if she cannot see you, you cannot see her. This demonstrates Piaget's principle of:

egocentrism

Which statement best describes the Zone of Proximal Development (ZDP)?

the range of skills a child can execute with the help of someone more skilled

Which parenting style has been shown to produce the most positive outcomes in children?

Authoritative

Daniel Levinson described a psychological shift from viewing one's life in years lived to viewing their life in terms of years left as:

midlife transition

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