psych chapter 13

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______________ is a psychoanalytic method for exploring the unconscious. With this method, patients are told to relax and say whatever comes to mind.

Free association

The _____________ perspective emphasizes the role of repressed childhood conflicts in personality disorders.

psychoanalytic

Jacob picks up a hammer and begins pounding on the board just as his father is hammering nails into the wall. Jacob's actions are best explained by:

identification

Humanistic psychology emphasizes the importance of:

a positive self-concept.

Genuineness, acceptance, and empathy are to ______________ as water, sun, and nutrients are to ______________

positive growth in humans; the growth of healthy trees

A principal is looking for advice on how to improve his relationships with the teachers in his school. Carl Rogers might suggest which of the following?

Be genuine with them and show them unconditional positive regard.

According to Hans and Sybil Eysenck, the individual variation that is apparent across people can be reduced to several dimensions, including which of the following?

extraversion-introversion

The Big Five personality factors include:

A. conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness, and extraversion.

As a psychologist, you ask one of your clients to complete the MMPI. After you score the MMPI, you notice that the client endorsed answers which make her seem healthier than she really is. These answers would be detected on:

the lie scale.

Our _________________ is influenced by our biology, our social experiences, and our cognition and personality.

behavior

Jack feels that his economic situation is due to the current political situation and the lack of incentives for small businesses. Jack fails to realize that his unnecessary spending and poor business choices may have contributed to his current situation. Jack has a(n):

external locus of control.

People experiencing a depressed hopelessness often have ____________ than optimistic people.

reduced disease-fighting immune systems

People overestimate the degree to which others are noticing and evaluating their appearance, performance, and blunders. Gilovich termed this:

the spotlight effect.

You imagine the self you want to be—a great athlete, well loved, and well educated. You also imagine the self you fear becoming—a homeless person, lonely, and unemployed. These visions reflect the concept of:

possible selves.

People with high-self esteem have feelings of high self-worth and tend to:

persist when faced with a difficult task.

Freud suggested that there are three interacting systems that can explain the dynamics of the human mind. These three systems refer to:

the id, the ego, and the superego.

Freud suggested that adults with a passive and submissive personality, marked by a childlike dependence, demonstrate signs of:

an oral fixation.

The _____________ perspective emphasizes the role of repressed childhood conflicts in personality disorders.

psychoanalytic

The humanistic perspective fails to appreciate:

the human capacity for evil.

Carl Rogers said, "The only question which matters is, 'Am I living in a way that is deeply satisfying to me?'" Critics of Rogers are most likely to object to this statement because:

Critics of Carl Rogers are likely to voice all of these objections.

When people are open with their own feelings, drop their facades, and are self-disclosing, they are displaying:

genuineness.

During a phone call to the Psychic Network, Mark was told, "You often worry about things much more than you admit, even to your best friends." Mark's amazement at the psychic's apparent understanding of his personality best illustrates:

the Barnum effect.

The ____________ includes a "lie scale" that can assess the extent to which a person is "faking" to make a good impression.

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)

Garrick is a calm, self-satisfied man who appears to be secure. Which of the following Big Five personality factors would best describe his personality?

emotional stability

Researchers attempt to understand personality using biological, psychological, and social-cultural factors. Analysis at the psychological level is especially likely to emphasize the importance of:

attributional style.

Julie knows that only she can turn her life around and be responsible for those choices. Julie has a(n):

internal locus of control.

People who have _____________ believe that chance or outside forces determine their fate. People who have _____________ believe that they control their own destiny.

an external locus of control; an internal locus of control

When you noticed that you had spilled coffee on your new shirt, you overestimated that other people at the meeting would notice. Your reaction best illustrates:

the spotlight effect.

In Western psychology, the ___________ is thought to be the organizer of our thoughts, feelings, and actions, as well as the pivotal center of the personality.

self

Defensive self-esteem is to _____________ as secure self-esteem is to _____________.

fragility; sturdiness

personality

an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.

psychodynamic theories

view personality with a focus on the unconscious and the importance of childhood experiences.

free association

in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing

psychoanalysis

(1) Sigmund Freud's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; (2) Freud's therapeutic technique used in treating psychological disorders. Freud believed that the patient's free associations, resistances, dreams, and transferences—and the therapist's interpretations of them—released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self-insight.

unconscious

according to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. According to contemporary psychologists, information processing of which we are unaware.

id

a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. The id operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification.

ego

the largely conscious, "executive" part of personality that, according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality. The ego operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id's desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain.

superego

the part of personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations.

psychosexual stages

the childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which, according to Freud, the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones.

Oedipus

[ED-uh-puss] complex according to Freud, a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father.

identification

the process by which, according to Freud, children incorporate their parents' values into their developing superegos.

fixation

according to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved

defense mechanisms

in psychoanalytic theory, the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality

repression

in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness.

collective unconscious

Carl Jung's concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species' history.

projective test

a personality test, such as the Rorschach, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one's inner dynamics.

Rorschach inkblot test

the most widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblots, designed by Hermann Rorschach; seeks to identify people's inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots.

terror-management theory

a theory of death-related anxiety; explores people's emotional and behavioral responses to reminders of their impending death.

humanistic theories

view personality with a focus on the potential for healthy personal growth.

self-actualization

according to Maslow, one of the ultimate psychological needs that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one's potential.

unconditional positive regard:

a caring, accepting, nonjudgmental attitude, which Carl Rogers believed would help clients to develop self-awareness and self-acceptance.

self-concept

all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, "Who am I?"

trait

a characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self-report inventories and peer reports.

personality inventory:

a questionnaire (often with true-false or agree-disagree items) on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors; used to assess selected personality traits.

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)

the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests. Originally developed to identify emotional disorders (still considered its most appropriate use), this test is now used for many other screening purposes.

empirically derived test

a test (such as the MMPI) developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups.

social-cognitive perspective

views behavior as influenced by the interaction between people's traits (including their thinking) and their social context.

reciprocal determinism

the interacting influences of behavior, internal cognition, and environment.

personal control

the extent to which people perceive control over their environment rather than feeling helpless

external locus of control

the perception that chance or outside forces beyond your personal control determine your fate.

internal locus of control

the perception that you control your own fate

self-control

the ability to control impulses and delay short-term gratification for greater long-term rewards.

learned helplessness

the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events.

positive psychology

the scientific study of human functioning, with the goals of discovering and promoting strengths and virtues that help individuals and communities to thrive.

self

in contemporary psychology, assumed to be the center of personality, the organizer of our thoughts, feelings, and actions.

spotlight effect

overestimating others' noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders (as if we presume a spotlight shines on us

self-esteem

one's feelings of high or low self-worth.

self-serving bias

a readiness to perceive oneself favorably.

narcissism

excessive self-love and self-absorption.

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