chapter 2

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1. Which of the following is not a reason why the division of labor enhances productivity?

d. It requires strict management control over worker time and motion.

2. An example of early uses of the functions of management is the _______________.

b. arsenal of Venice where ships were built

3. In Wealth of Nations, Adam Smith described the breakdown of jobs into narrow and repetitive tasks and called this ______________.

c. division of labor

4. Which of the following was a major result of the Industrial Revolution?

c. factory manufacturing

5. Frederick Taylor performed most of his work in _______________.

b. steel companies in Pennsylvania

6. Before Taylor, which of the following approaches was used to establish guidelines for an individual's work?

b. rule-of-thumb method

7. Frederick Taylor advocated which of the following management principles?

a. Work and responsibility should be divided almost equally between managers and workers.

8. Frank and Lillian Gilbreth's work began in the area of _________________.

a. laying bricks

9. Frank and Lillian Gilbreth were the first researchers to utilize motion pictures to the study of _____________.

b. hand-and-body motions

10. Which of the following phrases is most associated with scientific management?

b. one best way

11. The primary issue that motivated Taylor to create a more scientific approach to management was ______________.

a. worker efficiency

12. Probably the best-known example of Taylor's scientific management was the ______________ experiment.

b. pig iron

13. Based on his scientific management principles, Taylor suggested which of the following pay principles?

d. incentive pay

14. A "therblig" concerns what scientific management workplace issue?

b. basiProxy-Connection: keep-alive Cache-Control: max-age=0 hand motions

15. General administrative theory focuses on ________________.

a. the entire organization

16. General administrative theorists devoted their efforts to _________________.

c. making the overall organization more effective

17. Fayol was interested in studying ___________, whereas Taylor was interested in studying ________.

b. all managers; first-line managers

19. According to Weber's ideal bureaucracy, ______________ occurs when employees are placed in jobs based on technical qualifications.

d. formal selection

20. Bureaucracy is defined as a form of organization characterized by __________________.

all of the above; a. division of labor | b. clearly defined hierarchy | c. detailed rules and regulations

21. The quantitative approach to management has also been referred to by which of the following names?

b. operations research

22. The quantitative approach evolved from the development of mathematical and statistical solutions to ______________.

b. military problems in World War II

23. The quantitative approach involves applications of _______________.

a. statistics, information models, and computer simulations

24. Quantitative techniques have become less intimidating with the advent of _______________.

c. sophisticated computer software

25. ______________ is a technique that managers use to improve resource allocation decisions.

a. Linear programming

26. Decisions on determining a company's optimum inventory levels have been significantly influenced by _________________.

c. economic order quantity modeling

29. A company that sees its employees as the driving force behind the organization probably follows which managerial approach?

b. organizational behavior

30. Which of the following is most closely associated with the organizational behavior approach to management?

b. concern for employee motivation

31. According to the textbook, which of the following early advocates of organizational behavior was concerned about deplorable working conditions?

a. Robert Owens

32. Which of the following early advocates of organizational behavior created the field of industrial psychology, the scientific study of people at work?

b. Hugo Munsterberg

33. ______________ was one of the first to recognize that organizations could be viewed from the perspective of individual and group behavior.

c. Mary Parker Follett

34. Which of the following early advocates of organizational behavior was the first to argue that organizations were open systems?

d. Chester Barnard

35. Which four theorists are associated with the early organizational behavior approach?

a. Barnard, Follett, Munsterberg, and Owen

36. Which of the following was a major contribution of Hugo Munsterberg?

b. He created the field of industrial psychology

37. Munsterberg's work in industrial psychology is easily connected with what other management approach?

d. scientific management

38. Contemporary management practices that emphasize work groups as a means to increasing productivity can be traced to which of the following authors?

b. Mary Parker Follett

39. Which of the following is true concerning the management beliefs of Barnard?

d. Organizations are social systems that require human cooperation.

40. Without question, the most important contribution to the developing field of organizational behavior came out of the ________________.

d. Hawthorne Studies

41. The Hawthorne Studies were initially devised to study ______________.

c. the effect of illumination levels on employee productivity

42. What scientist is most closely associated with the Hawthorne Studies?

b. Mayo

43. One outcome of the Hawthorne Studies could be described by which of the following statements?

a. Social norms or group standards are the key determinants of individual work behavior.

44. A system can best be defined as _________.

b. a set of interrelated and interdependent parts

46. Which of the following types of systems does not interact with its environment?

c. closed

47. Which of the following is considered a systems input?

d. raw materials

48. In an open organizational system, products and services produced by the organization can be considered as which of the following?

d. inputs

49. Open organizations are those that _________.

a. interact with their environments

50. According to the systems approach, effective management must ensure that ________.

a. its organization succeeds in ignoring governmental regulations

51. A manager who believes that no one set of principles applies equally to all work environments is most likely advocating which management approach?

a. contingency

52. The contingency approach to management is based upon which of the following?

c. exceptions to generally accepted management principles

53. Each of the following represents a popular contingency variable except ________.

d. ideal bureaucratic structure

54. The fastest growth in the U.S. workforce is expected to be among ________________.

b. Asian workers

55. Workforce diversity refers to differences in employees such as ________________.

all the above; gender | age | race

56. Workforce diversity will be significantly affected in the next decade by _______.

b. the aging of the U.S. population

57. TQM differs from earlier management theories because _______________.

b. high quality and low costs are both seen as important to productivity

58. A learning organization develops the capability to ______________.

c. continuously learn, adapt, and change

59. __________ is the process of developing businesses to pursue trends and changes that no one else has responded to previously.

a. Entrepreneurship

60. Knowledge management involves encouraging the members of the organization to ________________.

d. systematically gather information and share it with others

61. The sales and marketing component of e-business is known as _____________.

c. e-commerce

62. ________ and ________ were two of the pioneers in the area of total quality management.

d. Deming; Juran

64. Which of the following types of e-businesses uses the Internet to perform its traditional business functions better, but not to sell anything?

b. e-business enabled organization

65. Levi Strauss & Co. is categorized as which of the following?

b. e-business enabled

66. An internal organizational communication system that uses Internet technology and is accessible only by organizational employees to communicate with its global workforce is called a(n) _______________.

c. intranet

67. An organization whose entire existence is made possible by and revolves around the Internet is categorized as which of the following?

c. total e-business

68. Which of the following involves changing, revolutionizing, transforming, or introducing new products or services or new ways of doing business?

b. innovation

70. ______________ is the generic term used to describe the quality revolution that swept through both the business and public sectors during the 1980s and 1990s.

b. Total quality management

72. A ______________ organization is one that has developed the capacity to continuously learn, adapt, and change.

b. learning

73. ______________ involves cultivating a learning culture where organizational members systematically gather knowledge and share it with others in the organization so as to achieve better performance.

d. Knowledge management

75. Quality management is driven by a focus ________.

c. continual improvement

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