chapter 16

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1. ______________ refers to the process by which a person's efforts are energized, directed, and sustained toward attaining a goal.

a. Motivation

2. What element of motivation is a measure of intensity or drive?

b. energy

3. We want employees to _______________ putting forth an effort to achieve organizational goals.

a. persist in

4. The drive to find food, drink, and sexual satisfaction is based on what level of need?

a. physiological

5. An individual who wants to buy a home in an expensive neighborhood with a low crime rate is satisfying which need?

b. safety

6. Within Maslow's hierarchy of needs, the need for belonging is associated with ______________.

c. social needs

7. The need for such factors as status, recognition, attention, self-respect, autonomy, and achievement are examples of which of the following needs according to Maslow's hierarchy of needs?

b. esteem

8. Growth, achieving one's potential, self-fulfillment, and the drive to become what one is capable of becoming are characteristics of which need according to Maslow's hierarchy?

d. self-actualization

9. Maslow argued that once a need is substantially satisfied, _______________.

a. the next need becomes dominant

10. Which of the following is considered a lower-order need?

d. safety

11. ___________ assumes that employees have little ambition, dislike work, and avoid responsibility.

b. Theory X

12. Theory Y assumes that people inherently _____________.

c. want to work and can exercise self-direction

13. Theory X assumed that _______________ needs dominated individuals, and Theory Y assumed that _______________ needs dominated.

a. lower-order; higher-order

14. According to Hertzberg, what characteristic is associated with job dissatisfaction?

b. status

15. According to Herzberg, when ___________ are adequate, people won't be dissatisfied, but they also will not be satisfied.

d. hygiene factors

16. According to Herzberg, in order to provide employees with job satisfaction, managers should concentrate on _____________.

c. motivator factors (moderate)

17. According to McClelland, the need to make others behave in a way they wouldn't have behaved otherwise is which of the following work motives?

b. need for power

18. Which of the following suggests that there is a desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships at work?

d. need for affiliation

19. An individual who would enjoy taking on the challenge of personally redesigning the workflow of a manufacturing line to improve employee productivity would probably be rated high on which of the following?

c. need for achievement

20. Goal setting works best when the goals are _____________.

a. specific

21. Difficult goals, when accepted, result in _______________.

b. higher performance than easy goals

22. People will do better when they get ______________ because it helps identify discrepancies between what they have done and what they want to do.

d. feedback

23. The higher your ______________, the more confidence you have in your ability to succeed in a task.

a. self-efficacy

24. Goal setting is more effective in cultures located in _______________.

b. North America

25. The concept that behavior is a function of consequences is known as ______________.

a. reinforcement theory

26. Reinforcement theorists believe that behavior results from _______________.

a. external consequences

27. A ______________ is any consequence immediately following a response that increases the probability that the behavior will be repeated.

b. reinforcer

28. According to reinforcement theory, rewards are effective if they ___________ a desired behavior.

b. follow

29. Behavior that is not rewarded, or is punished, is _______________.

d. less likely to be repeated

30. ______________ is the way tasks are combined to form complete jobs.

d. Job design

31. The number of different tasks required in a job and the frequency with which those tasks are repeated is ____________.

d. design

32. One of the first attempts to design jobs horizontally expanded jobs and is known as job _____________.

a. enlargement

33. Job ______________ is vertical expansion of a job by adding planning and evaluating responsibilities.

c. enrichment

34. The research evidence on the use of job enrichment programs could be classified as ____________.

d. inconclusive

35. The job characteristics model (JCM) identifies ______________ as the degree to which a job has substantial impact on the lives or work of other people.

a. task significance

36. ______________ is the degree to which a job provides substantial freedom, independence, and discretion to the individual in scheduling the work and determining the procedures to be used in carrying it out.

d. Autonomy

37. ______________ is the degree to which carrying out the work activities required by a job results in an individual's obtaining direct and clear information about the effectiveness of his or her performance.

d. Feedback

38. The job characteristics model provides guidance to managers concerning _______________.

a. job design

39. A theory that suggests that employees compare their inputs and outcomes from a job to the ratio of input to outcomes of relevant others is known as ______________.

d. equity theory

41. In general, the research support for equity theory could be described as ______________.

a. strong

42. Which expectancy theory linkage explains the belief that having a high grade point average is critical in obtaining a good job?

a. instrumentality

43. The importance that an individual places on a potential outcome or reward that can be achieved on the job is known as _____________.

a. valence or attractiveness of reward

44. Maslow's hierarchy aligns well with employees in ________________.

a. the United States

45. The view that a high achievement need acts as an internal motivator presupposes a willingness to accept a moderate degree of risk and a concern with performance, two cultural characteristics that are relatively absent in _______________.

b. Chile

46. Consistent with a legacy of communism and centrally planned economies, employees exhibit _______________.

d. a greater entitlement attitude

47. What seems important to almost all workers, regardless of their national culture?

c. the desire for interesting work

48. In a study comparing job-preference outcomes among graduate students in the United States, Canada, Australia, and Singapore, what rated the highest among them all?

c. growth

49. To maximize motivation among today's diverse workforce, managers need to think in terms of ________________.

a. flexibility

50. In _____________, employees work fewer days, but more hours per day.

d. a compressed workweek

51. ______________ work hours are where employees work a certain number of hours per week, but are free, within limits, to vary the hours of work.

a. Flexible

52. What type of job scheduling option would allow two different employees to share one 40-hour-a-week systems analyst position?

b. job sharing

53. The linking by computer and modem of workers at home with coworkers and management at an office is termed ____________.

d. telecommuting

54. What is a potential disadvantage of telecommuting?

b. unsatisfied social needs

55. Successful motivation of professions requires that managers recognize that the loyalty of professionals is usually toward their _____________.

d. profession

56. All of the following are mentioned as suggestions to motivate professionals except _______________.

b. using money and promotions

57. What will motivate involuntarily temporary employees?

d. provide the opportunity for training

58. When temps work alongside permanent employees who earn more and get benefits for doing the same job, _______________.

c. the performance of temps is likely to suffer

59. How would a manager motivate low-skilled, minimum-wage employees?

b. use employee recognition programs

61. ______________ is a motivational approach in which an organization's financial statements are opened to and shared with all employees.

a. Open-book management

62. Attempts to show the financial condition of the firm to employees to get them to think like owners of the firm are known as ______________.

d. open-book management

63. _______________ consists of personal attention and expressing interest, approval, and appreciation for a job well done.

c. An employee recognition program

64. Consistent with _______________, rewarding a behavior using employee recognition programs immediately following behavior is likely to encourage its repetition.

b. reinforcement theory

65. What is an example of an employee recognition program?

a. handwritten notes acknowledging something positive that the employee has done

66. Compensation plans that pay employees based on the basis of their contribution to the effectiveness of the organization are referred to as _____________.

a. pay-for-performance programs

67. Piece-rate pay plans, wage incentive plans, profit sharing, and lump-sum bonuses are examples of ______________ programs.

c. pay-for-performance

68. _______________ are financial instruments that give employees the right to purchase shares of stock at a set price.

a. Stock options

69. The literature on _______________ suggests that managers should ensure that employees have hard, specific goals and feedback on how well they are doing in achieving those goals.

a. goal-setting theory

71. Which of the following is not a suggestion for motivating employees?

b. make goals very difficult to achieve c. match people to jobs

72. Following the ideas of ____________, managers should check the system to see that employees perceive the rewards as being equal to the inputs.

c. using recognition

70. Managers must be sure that employees feel confident that increased efforts _______________.

b. can lead to achieving performance goals

What are Maslows hierachy of needs

physiological, safety, social, esteem, self-actualization

what are the contemporary theories of motivation?

Three needs theory; Goal setting Theory; Reinforcement Theory; Equity Theory; Expectancy Theory

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