Conceptual Physics Chapter 11-14

30 terms by SWIFT326 

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atom

(physics and chemistry) the smallest component of an element having the chemical properties of the element

Brownian Motion

the random motion of small particles suspended in a gas or liquid

atomic nucleus

An atom's central core, containing protons and neutrons.

electron

Negatively charged particle; located outside the atomic nucleus

proton

A subatomic particle that has a positive charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom

neutron

a subatomic particle that has no charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom

atomic number

The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom

atomic mass unit

unit of mass for expressing masses of atoms or molecules

isotopes

Atoms with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons

Periodic table

A table that shows the elements, their atomic number, symbol, and average atomic mass; elements with similar chemical properties are grouped together.

compound

(chemistry) a substance formed by chemical union of two or more elements or ingredients in definite proportion by weight

molecule

(physics and chemistry) the simplest structural unit of an element or compound

chemical reaction

(chemistry) a process in which one or more substances are changed into others

mixture

(chemistry) a substance consisting of two or more substances mixed together (not in fixed proportions and not with chemical bonding)

density

mass/volume

elasticity

the tendency of a body to return to its original shape after it has been stretched or compressed

Hooke's Law

states that the force acting on a spring is directly proportional to the amount that the spring is stretched. F=-kx

scaling

a change in the size of an image or element in both X-Y directions

pressure

the force pushing on a surface divided by the area of that surface. P = F/A

buoyant force

upward force exerted on an object immersed in a fluid

Archimedes Principle

the buoyant force on an object is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object

Principle of flotation

A floating object displaces a weight of fluid equal to its own weight

Pascal's Principle

When force is applied to a confined fluid, the change in pressure, is transmitted equally to all parts of the fluid

surface tension

The force that acts on the surface of a liquid and that tends to minimize the area of the surface

capillarity

the attraction between molecules that results in the rise of a liquid in small tubes

atmospheric pressure

the pressure caused by the weight of the atmosphere

barometer

An instrument that measures atmospheric pressure

Boyle's Law

p1v1=p2v2

Bernoulli's Principle

as the velocity of a fluid increases, the pressure exerted by the fluid decreases

Plasma

(physical chemistry) a fourth state of matter distinct from solid or liquid or gas and present in stars and fusion reactors

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