The supply of oxygen to and removal of wastes from the cells and tissues of the body as a result of the flow of blood through the capillaries.
A condition resulting from nitrogen trapped in the body's tissues caused by coming up too quickly from a deep, prolonged dive. A symptom of decompression sickness is "the bends" or deep pain in the muscles and joints.
The process of experiencing respiratory impairment from submersion/immersion in liquid, which result in death, morbidity (illness or other adverse effects), or no morbidity
Application of heat to the lateral chest, neck, armpits, and groin of a hypothermic patient.
Application of an external heat source to rewarm the body of a hypothermic patient.
covering a hypothermic patient and taking other steps to prevent further heat loss and help the body rewarm itself
condition in which body temperature is below normal, usually below 95 F (35 C) and often in the range of 78 to 95 F (26 to 35 C)
a system of evaluating trauma patients according to a numerical rating system to determine the severity of the patients trauma
The process of applying tension to straighten and realign a fractured limb before splinting. Also called tension.
A grating or grinding sensation caused by fractured bone ends or joints rubbing together; also air bubbles under the skin that produce a crackling sound or crinkly feeling.
injury caused when tissues such as blood vessels and nerves are constricted within a space as from swelling or from a tight dressing or cast
Open extremity injury
An extremity injury in which the skin has been broken or torn through from the inside by an injured bone or from the outside by something that has caused a penetrating wound with associated injury to the bone.
A splint that applies constant pull along the lenght of the lower extremity to help stabilize the fractured bone and to reduce muscle spasm in the limb. Traction splints are used primarily on femoral shaft fractures.
a type of pneumothorax in which air that enters the chest cavity is prevented from escaping
movement of a part of the chest in the opposite direction to the rest of the chest during respiration
fracture of two or more adjacent ribs in two or more places that allows for free movement of the fractured segment.
Any material (preferably sterile) used to cover a wound that will help control bleeding and help prevent additional contamination.
Rule of palm
a method for estimating the extent of a burn. The palm of the patient's hand, which equals about 1% of the body's surface area, is compared with the patient's burn to estimate its size
Rule of nines
a method of estimating the extent of a burn. For an adult, each of the following surfaces represents 9% of the body surface: the head and neck, each upper extremity, the chest, the abdomen, the upper back, the lower back and buttocks, the front of each lower extremity, and the back of each lower extremity. The remaining 1% is assigned to the genital region. For an infant or child the percentages are modified so that 18% is assigned to the head, 14% to each lower extremity.
Full thickness burn
a burn in which all the layers of the skin are damaged. There are usually areas that are charred black or areas that are dry and white. Also called a third-degree burn.
Partial thickness burn
a burn in which the first layer of skin (epidermis) is burned through and the dermis (second layer) is damaged. Burns of this type cause reddening, blistering, and a mottled appearence. (Also called second-degree burn).
a burn that involves only the epidermis, the outer layer of the skin. It is characterized by reddening of the skin and perhaps some swelling. An example is a sunburn. Also called a first-degree burn.
An open wound that tears through the skin and destroys underlaying tissues. A penetrating puncture wound can be shallow or deep. A perforating puncture wound has both an entrance and an exit wound.
an injury caused when force is transmitted from the body's exterior to its internal structures. Bones can be broken, muscles, nerves, and tissues damaged, and internal organs ruptured, causing internal bleeding
the collection of blood under the skin as the result of blood escaping into the tissue from damaged blood vessels. bruise
Hypo perfusion due to nerve paralysis (sometimes caused by spinal cord injuries) resulting in the dilation of blood vessels that increases the volume of the circulatory system beyond the point where it can be filled
Shock, or lack of perfusion, brought on not by blood loss, but by inadequate pumping action of the heart. It is often the result of a heart attack or congestive heart failure.
Body has lost the battle to maintain perfusion to vital organs; Even if it returns the patient may die days later due to organ failure
Occurs when the body can no longer compensate for low blood volume or lack of perfusion. Late signs such as decreasing blood pressure become evident.
When the patient is developing shock but the body is still able to maintain perfusion.
substances applied as powders, dressings, gauze, or bandages to open wounds to stop bleeding
A bulky dressing held in position with a tightly wrapped bandage to apply pressure to help control bleeding.
bleeding from capillaries, which is characterized by a slow, oozing flow of blood.
Bleeding from a vein, which is characterized by dark red or maroon blood and as a steady flow, easy to control.
Bleeding from an artery, which is characterized by bright red blood and as rapid, profuse, and difficult to control.
A condition in which the circulatory system fails to provide sufficient circulation to enable every body part to perform its function; also called hypoperfusion.