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natural theology

was dedicated toward studying the adaptations of organisms as evidence that the Creator had designed each species for a purpose

taxonomy

a system for naming species and grouping species into a hierarchy of increasingly complex categories.

Darwin's views were influenced by

fossils

Paleontology

the study of fossils, was largely developed by Georges Cuvier, a French anatomist.

Catastrophism

boundaries between strata were due to local flood or drought that destroyed the species then present.

James Hutton, a Scottish geologist

gradualism

gradualism

profound change results from slow, continuous processes

Charles Lyell

uniformitarianism

uniformitarianism

geological processes had not changed throughout Earth's history.

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