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Vocab, etc.

agricultural density

the ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture

agricultural revolution

the time when humans first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering

arithmetic density

the total number of people divided by the total land area

census

a complete enumeration of a population

CBR

the total number of live births in a year for every 1000 people alive in the society

CDR

the total number of deaths in a year for every 1000 people alive in the society

demographic transition

the process of change in a society's population from a condition of high CBR and CDR and low rate of natural increase to a condition of low CBRs and CDRs and a higher total population

demography

the scientific study of population characteristics

dependency ratio

the number of people under the age of 15 and over age 64 compared to the number of people active in the labor force

doubling time

the number of years needed to double a population assuming a constant rate of natural increase

ecumene

the portion of Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement

epidemiology

branch of medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that are prevalent among a population at a specific time and are produced by some special causes not generally present in the affected locality

epidemiologic transition

distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition

Industrial Revolution

a series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods

IMR

the total number of deaths in a year among infants under 1 year old for every 1000 live births in a society

life expectancy

the average number of years an individual can be expected to live, given current social, economic, and medical conditions

NIR

the percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as the CBR - CDR

overpopulation

the number of people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living

pandemic

disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population

physiological density

the number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture

population pyramid

a bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex

sex ratio

the number of males per 100 females in the population

TFR

the average number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years

ZPG

a decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero

bRITISH received pRONUNCIATION

THE DIALECT OF eNGLISH ASSOCIATED WITH UPPER CLASS bRITONS LIVING IN lONDON AND NOW CONSIDERED STANDARD IN THE uk

Creolized Language

a language that results from the mixing of a colonizer's language with the indigenous language of the people being dominated

denglish

combo of German an English

dialect

a regional variety of a language distinguished by vocabulary, spelling, and mispronunciation

ebonics

dialects spoken by some African American

extinct language

a language that was once used by people in daily activities but is no longer used

franglais

a term used by the French for English words that have entered the French language; a combo of francais and anglais

ideograms

the system of writing used in China and other E Asian countries in which each symbol represents an idea or a concept rather than a specific sound, as is the case with English letters

isogloss

a boundary that separates regions in which different language usages predominate

isolated language

a language that's unrelated to any other languages and therefore not attached to any language family

language

a system of communication through the use of speech, a collection of sounds understood by a group of people to have the same meaning

language branch

a collection of languages related through a common ancestor that existed several thousand years ago; differences aren't as extensive or as old as with language families

language family

a collection of languages related to each other through a common ancestor long before recorded history

language group

a collection of languages with in a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past and display relatively few differences in grammar and vocabulary

lingua franca

a language mutually understood and commonly used in trade by people who have different native languages

literary tradition

a language that's often written as well as spoken

official language

the language adopted for use by the government for the conduct of business and publication of documents

pidgin language

a form of speech that adopts a simplified grammar and limited vocabulary of a lingua franca; used for communications among speakers of 2 different languages

spanglish

combo of Spanish and English, spoken by Hispanic Americans

standard language

the form of a language used for official gov't business, edu, and mass communications

Vulgar Latin

a form of Latin used in daily conversation by ancient romans, as opposed to the standard dialect, which was used for official documents

brain drain

large scale emigration by talented people

chain migration

migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there

circulation

short term, repetitive, or cyclical movements that recur on a regular basis

counterurbanization

net migration from urban to rural areas in more developed countries

emigration

migration from a location

floodplain

the area subject to flooding during a given number of years according to historical trends

forced migration

permanent movement compelled usually by cultural forces

guest workers

workers who migrate to the more developed countries of N and W Europe, usually from S and E Europe or from N Africa, in search of higher paying jobs

immigration

migration TO a new location

international migration

permanent movement from one country to another

interregional migration

permanent movement from one region of a country to another

internal migration

permanent movement within a particular country

intervening obstacle

an environmental or cultural feature of the landscape that hinders migration

intraregional migration

permanent movement within one region of a country

migration

form of relocation diffusion involving a permanent move to a new location

migration transition

change in the migration pattern of a society that results from industrialization, population growth, and other social and economic changes that also produce the demographic transition

mobility

all types of movement from one location to another

net migration

the difference between the level of immigration and the level of emigration

pull factor

factor that induces people to move to a new location

push factor

factor that induces people to leave old residences

quotas

in reference to migration, laws that place max limits on the number of people who can immigrate to a country each year

refugees

people who are forced to migrate from their home country and can't return for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group, or political opinion

unauthorized immigrants

people who enter a country without proper documents

voluntary migration

permanent movement undertaken by choice

custom

the frequent repetition of an act, to the extent that it becomes characteristic of the group of people performing the act

folk culture

culture traditionally practiced by a small, homogeneous, rural group living in relative isolation from other groups

habit

a repetitive act performed by a particular individual

popular culture

culture found in a large, heterogeneous society that shares certain habits despite differences in other personal characteristics

taboo

a restriction on behavior imposed by social custom

terroir

the contribution of a location's distinctive physical features to the way food tastes

the interplay between globalization and local diversity

the geographic study of rht distribution of languages provides a good example of

literary tradition

the written form of a language

French; Spanish

__ is to Canada as __ is to the US

it has a big role as the common language of a global economy and culture

how has English achieved unprecedented acceptance globally?

they both invaded England

how did both the Angles and Normans contribute to the development of the English language?

Denmark

where did the first speakers of the language that evolved into English live?

the differentiation of one language into two

what does isolation usually result in?

language group

a group of languages that share a common origin but have since evolved into individual languages

language family

a group of languages that share a common ancestor before recorded history

Sino-Tibetan

the second largest language family

Italian, Portuguese, Romanian, French

Romance languages

Celtic languages

threatened by extinction in England; are still spoken by people in France; have been revived in some parts of the British Isles; have an extensive body of literature

Kurgans

Marija Gimbutas' theory points to the first speakers of the Indo-European language as the ancient...

with the diffusion of agriculture

according to Renfrew's Anatolian hearth theory, how did Indo-European languages diffuse across Europe?

Finland, Hungary, and Estonia

every European country is dominated by Indo-European speakers except

Iceland's relative isolation from other places

why has the Icelandic language changed less than any other Germanic language

Mandarin

the language spoken by the greatest number of native speakers in the world

ideograms

Chinese is written in the form of

thousands of years of isolation between tribal groups

resulted in the large number of individual languages documented in Africa

revived language

Hebrew is an example of

Belgium

where do the Flemings and Walloons live?

no

does a pidgin language have any native speakers

lingua franca

a mutually understood language by people who have different native languages

False

All languages have a literary tradition but these traditions are being lost (T/F)

False

The present distribution of languages around the world is due to technological advances and the diffusion of popular culture (T/F)

True

Americans spell words differently than the British primarily because of a strong national feeling in the US for an independent identity (T/F)

False

the most spoken language in China is Cantonese (T/F)

True

A language family is a collection of languages related through a common ancestral language existing before recorded history (T/F)

False

Basque is the only non Indo European language currently spoken in Europe (T/F)

True

Indo European divided into different branches because of isolation of different speakers (T/F)

roman Empire

Where do we get the term "Romance" language branch from?

most other languages Romans came in contact with were extinguished or suppressed

what happened to the Native European languages?

the Roman Empire collapsed and various provinces were isolated from each other

how did other languages evolve from Latin

Romanian

what language is fully derived from Latin

Age of European imperial conquest

led to the wide dispersion of Portuguese and Spanish

Indic

2d largest language group

Devanagari

the script used to write Hindi

Urdu

language that Pakistan uses

Russian

the most widely understood Slavic language

Estonia

Baltic nation that doesn't utilize a Slavic language

China and smaller SE Asian countries

where the Sino-Tibetan Language family is found

the Simitic branch

what China's language is mainly composed of

Cantonese, Wu, Min, Hakka, Mandarin

Chinese language branches

Thailand, Laos, and parts of Vietnam

where is the austro-Thai branch found?

Hangul

how is the korean alphabet utilized?

the Quran

the basis for standard Arabic

Swahili

the lingua franca for most of E Africa

Khoisan

tribal language that utilizes clicking sounds

altitude

the basis for the distinction High and Low Germanic

material artifacts, values, and political institutions

aspects of culture

customs

a repetitive act by an identifiable group of people

false

fold cultures are identified by small, heterogeneous, and isolated groups of people (T/F)

false

fold cultures are dependent upon rapid, simultaneous global connections (T/F)

true

fold cultures may have multiple hearths that are anonymous (T/F)

AFRN

started the diffusion of American popular music to the rest of the world

physical environment, climate, soil type

decides the type of food habits for a folk culture

soybeans

what many Asians eat to add protein into their diet

true

the diffusion of folk cultures is done by the means of relocation diffusion (T/F)

false

S European meal preparation was known for slow-cooking methods (T/F)

false

popular customs are known for their meaning and natural properties rather than appearance (T/F)

false

globalization is known for preserving the unique qualities of Folk cultures, such as female subservience (T/F)

false

the growth of free media outlets are a welcome trend for most isolated gov'ts

globes

most accurately depict the truest geographical distance, direction, size and shape

industrial revolution

spawned vast manufacturing centers

earth writing

the word "geography" literally means

influence of the friction of distance

the slope of the decay function in distance decay models illustrates

cartography

the art and science of map making

death rates increase, then birth rates decrease, and the population levels off

the Demographic Transition Theory

culture hearth

the center and place of origin of a cultural tradition

the sun belt

a US region that has seen the most population growth

population pyramid

shows the age and sex structure of a population

longitude

the angular distance east of west of Greenwich, England

the demographic transition model

explained how countries with high levels of economic production will have lower b irth rates

Malthus

who thought that human numbers will exceed the earth's food potential

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