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Volcano parts, volcano types

magma chamber

a reservoir of magma inside the earth; magma collects in a pocket beneath a volcano

vent

openings where ash escapes into the atmosphere; opening at Earth's surface where volcanic materials escape

pipe

a long tube that connects the magma chamber to the earth's surface

crater

a depression in the summit of a volcano

fissure

a crack in the earth's crust that allows magma to travel through and eventually reach the surface

tephra

fragments of volcanic rock and lava that are blasted into the air in large explosions; typically made of rhyolite

lava flow

masses of molten rock that pour onto Earth's surface during an eruption

obsidian rock

shiny, smooth dark volcanic rock

pumice rock

three type of volcanoes

shield, cinder cone, composite

Volcanoes are classified by eruptions. What are the two types of eruptions

quiet, explosive

caldera

a crater that is more than 1 km long; an enlarged crater; formed when the summit of the volcano is weak and collapses

pyroclastic flow

any fragments or material released by a volcano

volcanic rock

volcanoes produce lava which hardens into rocks; two examples are pumice and obsidian

Quiet eruptions

Magma low in silica (flows easily, low viscosity), produce Panhoehoe and AA lava; Shield volcano; example is Hawaiin Islands

Explosive eruptions

Has magma high in silica (high viscosity, flows slowly), Magma builds up in the volcanoes pipe and gasses inside the magma build pressure and then expolde, incredible force of eruption;

Composite volcano Cinder Cone

Composite: can have an explosive or quiet eruption, taller than cinder cone volcanoes; has one vent
Cinder Cone: explosive eruption, smallest type of volcano, has one vent

Cinder Cone vs. Shield Volcano

Cinder Cone: smallest type of volcano, has steep sides, explosive eruption
Shield: has multiple vents, has broad gentle slopes

Composite vs. Shield Volcanoes

Composite: has only one vent, formed on convergent boundary, can have explosive or quiet eruption
Shield: has multiple vents, has broad gentle slopes, can form at a hot spot

Example of a Shield Volcano

Island of Hawaii

Example of a Cinder Cone

Sunset Crater, Arizona

Example of a Composite volcano

Mt. St. Helen's in Washington; Mt. Fuji in Japan

smallest most basic type of volcano

composite

molten material below the Earth's surface

magma

lava flow with a rope like texture

Pahoehoe

caldera

an enlarged crater

location of mt st helen's

washington

pressure

volcanoes eventually erupt because of a build up in this

cinder cone volcanoes have only one of these

vent

viscosity of magma depends on temperature and

silica content

to decrease the viscosity of a liquid you can increase

temperature

extinct

volcanoes that will never erupt again

dormant

volcanoes that have not erupted for a long period of time, but may erupt again

hot spot

volcano that does not form over a plate boundary

shield

type of volcano with a gentle slope and broad base

vent

opening

type of eruption produced from either cinder cone or composite volcano

explosive

these type of volcanoes have one vent

composite and cinder cone

this type of volcano is formed at a convergent boundary

composite

this type of volcano forms over a hot spot

shield

this type of volcano has multiple vents

shield

this type of volcano has both quiet and explosive eruptions

composite

Flickr Creative Commons Images

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