AP Psychology Chapter 14 Psychological Disorders

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Psychological Disorder

deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional behavior patterns. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 640)

Medical Model

the concept that diseases have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and, in most cases, cured

DSM-IV

The American psychiatric association's widely used system for classifying psychological disorders.

Neurotic Disorder

a psychological disorder that is usually distressing but that allows one to think rationally and function socially

Psychotic Disorder

a psychological disorder in which a person loses contact with reality, experiencing irrational ideas and distorted perceptions.

Anxiety Disorders

psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety

Generalized Anxiety Disorder

an anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal

Phobia

an anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation

Obsessive-compulsive Disorder

An anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts and/or actions.

Panic Disorder

an anxiety disorder marked by a minutes-long episode of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations

Somatoform Disorders

disorders characterized by physical symptoms for which no known physical cause exists

Conversion Disorders

Somatoform disorders in which individuals experience serious somatomic symptoms such as fuctional blindness, deafness, and paralysis

Hypochondriasis

a condition characterized by misinterpretation of physical symptoms and fearing that one has a serious illness despite appropriate medical evaluation and reassurance

Dissociative Disorders

disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings

Post-traumatic Stress Disorder

a disorder characterized by an acute emotional responce to a traumatic event or severe emotional stress such as an airplane crash, repeated physical or emotional trauma

Amnesia

loss of memory

Fugue

condition of having amnesia for your current life and starting a new life somewhere else

Dissociative Identity Disorder

a rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities

Mood Disorders

psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes. See major depressive disorder, mania, and bipolar disorder. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 658)

Major Depressive Disorder

a mood disorder in which a person, for no apparent reason, experiences two or more weeks of depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminishes interest or pleasure in most activities

Bipolar Disorder

a mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania

Mania

a mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state

Schizophrenia

a group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions

Delusions

false beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders

Personality Disorders

psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning

Antisocial Personality

A person who lacks a conscience, is emotionally shallow, impulsive, and selfish, and tends to manipulate others

Bio-psycho-social Perspective

a contemporary perspective which assumes that biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors combine and interact to produce pscyhological disorders

Attention-deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

A psychological disorder marked by the appearance by age 7 or one or more of three key symptoms: extreme inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.

Post-traumatic Growth

The positive psychological change experienced as a result of the struggle with highly challenging life circumstances

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