8th Grade Social Studies Midterm Review

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Missouri Compromise

A compromise composed of three parts: Missouri would enter the union as a slave state, Maine would enter as a free state, and Congress drew an imaginary line from the base of Missouri to the north end of the Louisiana Purchase. The line represented that everything above would be free, and all below would be slave.

Fugitive Slave Act

Slaves who escape to the north must be returned to the south.

Compromise of 1850

A compromise that was composed of four different parts: Fugitive Slave Act would be passed, there would be no slave trade in D.C., California would enter as a free state, and Utah and New Mexico are popular sovereignty.

Henry Clay

Person who proposed the Missouri Compromise

Jefferson Davis

President of the CSA

CSA strengths

Good generals, vast size, soldiers fighting for a defensive war to protect homeland

Union strengths

Large population, 85% of nation's factories, 70% of nation's railroad mileage

Battle of Bull Run

First official battle of the Civil War

Anaconda Plan

The unions goals in the war : Naval blockade of coastline, take control of Mississippi River, capture Richmond.

Battle of Antietam

This battle was a tie.

Emancipation Proclamation

Declared all slaves in confederate-held territory were free

Significance of Gettysburg

South would never recover from defeat

Significance of Vicksburg

Union takes control of Mississippi River; south split into two

Appomattox Courthouse

Final engagement in war

Lincoln's 10% Plan called for...

Pardoning Confederate officials, allowing the CSA to send representatives to congress, and 10% of the population had to swear loyalty to the US.

Andrew Johnson

President after Lincoln's assassination.

Andrew Johnson's plan called for...

All states ratifying 13th Amendment, amnesty to most white southerners, and pledging loyalty to the US.

Radical Republicans

Political party in congress that fought for full citizenship and equal rights for African Americans. They also sought to punish the south.

Civil Rights Act

Equal rights granted to all citizens (except Native Americans)

Reconstruction act called for...

States that wanted to join the Union had to approve their state constitutions and ratify the 14th Amendment

Black codes limited...

freedom of formerly enslaved people.

Scalawags

White southerners who supported Radical Republicans (seen as traitors by many southerners)

Carpetbaggers

White northerners who rushed to the south after the war. They went to profit from the south's misfortune.

Sharecropping

In this system, farmers rented land on credit

KKK

Terrorist group formed in the south whose goals were to restore democratic control of the south and keep former slaves powerless.

The 3 Post War Problems

South destroyed, freedmen, and re-admitting confederate states

Reconstruction

Rebuilding the south after the Civil War

Oil Baron

Rockefeller

Steel Baron

Carnegie

Railroad Baron

Vanderbilt

Robber Baron

A businessman who used ruthless business tactics

Pooling

Several companies agree to divide up business in an area and then fixed their prices at a high level

Consolidation

Combining your main company with other bought small companies

Trust

Group of corporations run by one board of directors

Monopoly

One company controls all the business of an industry

Vertical Integration

Gaining control of all the steps required to change raw material to the finished product

Free Enterprise System

Businesses are owned by private citizens. Companies compete to win customers by making the best products at the lowest prices

Laissez-Faire

When the government does not bother businessmen

Horizontal Integration

One businessman buys more companies of his business, combining the board of the directors into one so all the money goes to him

Progressivism

Reform movements that sought to raise living standards and correct wrongs in American society

Muckraker

Writers who exposed corruption in American society

16th Amendment

Amendment that gave congress the power to create income taxes

17th Amendment

Amendment that provided for direct election of U.S. senators

Federal Reserve Act

Law that created the modern banking system

13th Amendment

Slavery abolished

14th Amendment

Civil rights

15th Amendment

Voting rights for all citizens (excludes women)

18th Amendment

Prohibition of alcohol

19th Amendment

Women's suffrage

Poll tax

Fee paid by a voter in order to vote

Literacy test

Examination to determine if a person is smart enough to vote

Dawes Act

Gave Natives land to get out of the way and stay put

Homestead Act

Gave Americans land to encourage settling in the west

Causes of the 2nd Industrial Revolution

Capitol, Labor, Inventions, Natural Resources, Transportation

Temperance

Ban of alcoholic products

Yellow journalism

Exaggeration of the truth to encourage people to believe in something (newspapers)

Isolationism

Policy of staying out of foreign affairs

Imperialism

Policy of powerful countries to control the economic affairs of weaker countries/regions

Nationalism

To have pride in one's country

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