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true

More massive white dwarfs are smaller than less massive white dwarfs

false

our sun will likely undergo a nova event in about 5 billion years

false

no light can escape a black hole, but things such as gamma rays, x-rays, and neutrinos can

false

all massive-star (>8 solar mass) supernova leave behind black holes as remnants

false

suppose that, you sit in your classroom, you see two balls fall to the floor and hit at exactly the same time. According to the theory of relativity, other people sitting in the classroom with you will not agree that the balls hit the floor at the same time.

true

the general theory of relativity deals with the effects of acceleration, but the special theory of relativity does not take acceleration into account

true

according to the theory of relativity, the length of a moving object in the direction of the objects motion decreases

true

different observers can disagree about the speed of a baseball, but they cannot disagree about the speed of a light beam

true

according to the theory of general relativity, our perception of gravity arises from the curvature of spacetime

false

the theory of general relativity proves that wormholes like those used in science fiction cannot exist

false

although many scientists believe general relativity to be correct, there is no experimental evidence supporting the predictions this theory makes about time.

true

time runs more slowly in a stronger gravitational field, according to the theory of general relativity

true

Sir Arthur Eddington helped proved the theory of general relativity by showing that the mass of the Sun can produce a shift in the apparent position of distant stars

false

A black hole will exist forever, once its formed

true

stars are chemical factories, producing more complex elements from simpler elements

true

most stars are born in clusters

false

the mass of stars can never change

false

In a binary star system, the maximum apparent doppler shift occurs when the two stars are moving perpendicular to the observers line of sight

false

there is no limit to the mass with which a star can be born

true

we believe a supermassive black hole exists at the center of the Milky Way galaxy

true

gamma-ray bursts are believed to mark the birth of a black hole

false

the sun is located at the edge of the galaxy, approximately 100,000 light-years from the galactic center

true

the death of a star may trigger the formation of new stars

false

almost all elements heavier than hydrogen and helium were made by novae

true

most of the current star formation in the milky way occurs in spiral arms

false

the observable universe is the same size today as it was a few billion years ago

false

earth is precisely 1 AU from the Sun

false

Copernicus was the first person to suggest a sun-centered solar system

true

scientific theories can never be proved true beyond all doubt

false

speed and velocity are the same thing

false

Kepler deduced his laws of planetary motion once Newtown had published his universal law of gravitation

false

there is no gravity in space

true

the shorter the wavelength of light, the higher its frequency

false

doubling the distance between two objects halves the gravitational force between them

false

energy and power are different words for the same thing

false

the greater the wavelength of light, the greater its energy

false

x-rays, because they have more energy, travel through space faster than visible light

true

the atomic nuclei of the same element always have the same number of protons

false

atomic nuclei consists of protons and electrons

true

the energy levels of electrons vary from one element to another

false

emission lines from different ionization states of the same element appear in the same place in the spectrum

false

any object moving relative to Earth will have a Doppler Shift

false

the energy levels of an element and its ion are the same

false

sunspots are cooler than the surrounding region of the Sun's surface

true

you are currently emitting electromagnetic waves

true

the more distance a star, the smaller its parallax

true

spectral type, surface temperature, and color all describe the same basic characteristics of a star

true

two stars both lie on the main sequence, Star X is spectral type A, while Star Y is spectral type G. Therefore, Star X is more mass

false

most stars on the main sequence fuse hydrogen into helium in their cores, but some do not

false

the apparent brightness of a star depends only on its luminosity

false

Stars are continually forming in the halo of our Galaxy today

true

spiral galaxies have more gas, dust, and younger stars than elliptical galaxies do

true

galaxy mergers take hundreds of millions of years to complete

true

a protogalactic cloud with slow star formation is more likely to form a spiral galaxy than an elliptical galxy

false

massive-star supernovae and white dwarf supernovae work equally well as a standard candles for measuring cosmic distances

true

If inflation really occurred, then our observable universe is only a tiny portion of the entire universe born in the Big Bang

false

The Big Bang predicts that one in four atoms in the universe is helium

true

The Milky way is moving further away from most other galaxies in the Universe

false

Any object moving relative to Earth will have a Doppler shift

false

Scientists believe in the theory of relativity because it was invented by Einstein, even though there is very little experimental evidence supports it

false

As predicted by general relativity, time runs slightly slower at the peak of Mount Everest than it does at sea level

true

two stars both lie on the main sequence, Star X is a spectral type A, while Star Y is spectral type G. Therefor, Star X is more massive than Star Y

false

all stars spend approximately the same amount of time on the main sequence

false

no visible light can escape a black hole, but things such as gamma-rays, x-rays and nuetrinos can

true

the larger the value of Hubble's constance, the more rapid the expansion of the universe and hence the younger the universe

true

photographs of many young stars show long jets of material apparently being ejected from their poles

false

the greater the wavelength of light, the greater its energy

true

the shorter the wavelength of light, the higher its frequency

true

the proton-proton chain converts four hydrogen nuclei into one helium nucleus

false

two stars have the same luminosity, Star X is spectral type F, while Star Y is spectral type K. Therefor, Star X is larger in radius than Star Y

true

in any star cluster, stars with lower masses greatly outnumber those with higher masses

false

the most massive stars generate at the end of their lives by fusing iron in their cores

true

more massive white dwarfs are smaller than less massive white dwarfs

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