non-coding regions of DNA
coding regions of DNA
DNA (replication) -> RNA (transcription) -> Protein (translation)
made of two subunits, out of rRNA and protein, with 3 sites: Psite, Asite, and Esite
process of transfering DNA strand into mRNA
enzyme involved in transcription
a specific DNA sequence before a gene sequence, which binds RNA polymerase to indicate where to start transcribing RNA. (Gene regulation in eukaryotes)
first step when the RNA polymerase binds to promoter sequence
RNA Polymerase unwinds the DNA and starts adding RNA base pairs, builds from 5' to 3'
RNA polymerase stops at termination sequece
in eukaryotes, the initial RNA product containing introns and exons produced by transcription of DNA; must be processed to form proteins
after an mRNA is transcribed from a gene, the cell adds a stretch of A residues (typically 50-200) to its 3' end; help export from nucleus
when pre-mRNA is modified the 5 primed end is synthesized first; it is a modified form of a guanine nucleotide; protects against RNase
molecules that will identify introns and remove them and splice together remaining exons to produce finished mRNA product; together form the spliceosome
A process which selects which exons will be retained as part of the mature mRNA that will be used during translation. This allows for the possibility that a single gene can produce more than one type of protein
a three-nucleotide sequence of DNA or mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid or termination signal; the basic unit of the genetic code.
AUG; the codon that begins all RNA.
UAG, UAA, or UGA; the codon that ends all RNA
Aminoacyl tRNA synthetase
An enzyme that catalyzes attachment of an amino acid to its cognate tRNA.
group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to an mRNA codon
adds water molecule to polypeptide
site in the ribosome where peptide bonds are formed between adjoining amino acids on a growing polypeptide chain
holds the tRNA carrying the next amino acid to be added to the chain
one of a ribosome's three binding sites for tRNA during translation. This site is the place where discharged tRNAs leave the ribosome.
bead-like structure in eukaryotic chromatin, composed of a short length of DNA wrapped around a core of histone proteins
addition of -CH3 group to DNA, associated with decreased transcription (permanent deactivation)
the attachment of (-COCH3) to certain amino acids of histone proteins, the chromatin becomes less compact, and the DNA is accessible for transcription
A DNA segment containing multiple control elements that may be located far away from the gene it regulates; allows protein synthesis to go at an increased rate, a eukaryotic DNA sequence that helps stimulate the transcription of a gene at some distance from it; it functions by means of a transcription factor called an activator, which binds to it and then to the rest of the transcription apparatus
the process of removing introns and rejoining cut ends.
bind to mRNA and promote degradation
a process by which a special double-stranded RNA initiates the breakdown a complementary mRNA, blocking gene expression
a protein degradation substance that binds to proteins and marks them for destruction
protein complexes that destroy the porteins bound to a ubiquitin to get rid of deformed or proteins no longer needed
gene regulation in prokaryotes in which protein synthesis is activated (ex: lactose)
gene regulation in prokaryotes in which protein synthesis is stopped (ex: typtophan)
aunit of genetic function common in bacteria and phages, consisting of coordinately regulated clusters of genes with related functions.
protein that binds to the operator in an operon to switch off transcription
an effector that can bind to the lac repressor when lactose is present in order to change it so that it no longer binds to the lac operator
A protein that binds to DNA and stimulates transcription of a specific gene.
activator for catabolism in sugars
allosteric protein attaching to CAP, varies inversely to glucose content
a molecule (usually the product of an operon) that binds to a repressor to activate it
A specific small molecule that inactivates the repressor in an operon
region of chromosome in an operon to which the repressor binds when the operon is "turned off"
a cluster of genes in a prokarytoic cell under the control of one promoter and one operator; the genes govern the synthesis of the necesary enzymes required to synthesize the amino acid tryptophan
gene system with a promoter, cap site, an operator gene, and three structural genes that control lactose metabolism
an interaction of the constituent subunits of a protein whereby a conformational change in one subunit is transmitted to all the others
a monomer; separate polypeptide chains that builds a larger complex, a monomer that forms part of a larger molecule, such as an amino acid residue in a protein or a nucleotide residue in a nucleic acid. Can also refer to a complete molecule that forms part of a larger molecule. Many proteins, for example, are composed of multiple polypeptide chains, each of which is called a protein (blank)
(the glucose effect) Inhibition of the metabolism of alternative carbon sources by glucose
A cytoplasmic protein that binds to a stop codon where it appears in the A-site of the ribosome. This modifies the peptidyl transferase activity of the ribosome, such that a water molecule is added to the end of the completed protein. This releases the finished protein from the final tRNA, and allows the ribosome subunits and mRNA to disassociate.
string of ribosomes simultaneously translating regions of the same mRNA strand during protein synthesis
mutation that affects a single nucleotide, usually by substituting one nucleotide for another
A mutation that changes a single nucleotide, but does not change the amino acid created
single base change results in the inclusion of a different amino acid
single base change results in the inclusion of a stop codon
mutation that shifts the "reading" frame of the genetic message by inserting or deleting a nucleotide
specialization, development, responding to organism's needs
these three are the reasons for the need to turn on & off large numbers of genes
hours to weeks
lifespan of mRNA