molecule formed from the breaking off of a phosphate group for ATP; results in a release of energy that is used for biological reactions.
energy-storing molecule in cells composed of an adenosine molecule, a ribose sugar and three phosphate groups; energy is stored in the molecule's chemical bonds and can be used quickly and easily by cells
series of reactions during the light-independent phase of photosynthesis in which simple sugars are formed from carbon dioxide using ATP and hydrogen from the light-dependent reactions
light-absorbing pigment in plants and some protists that is required for photosynthesis; absorbs most wavelengths of light except for green.
Electron Transport Chains
series of proteins embedded in a membrane along which energized electrons are transported; as electrons are passed from molecule to molecule, energy is released.
phase of photosynthesis where light energy is converted to chemical energy in the form of ATP; results in the splitting of water and the release of oxygen
phase of photosynthesis where energy from light-dependent reactions is used to produce glucose and additional ATP molecules
electron carrier molecule; when carrying excited electrons it becomes NADPH
reaction taking place in the thylakoid membranes of a chloroplast during light-dependent reactions where two molecules of water are split to form oxygen, hydrogen ions, and electrons
process by which autotrophs, such as algae and plants, trap energy from sunlight with chlorophyll and use this energy to convert carbon dioxide and water into simple sugars
molecules that absorb specific wavelengths of sunlight
chemical reactions that require the presence of oxygen
anaerobic process in which cells convert pyruvic acid into carbon dioxide and ethyl alcohol; carried out by many bacteria and fungi such as yeasts
chemical reactions that do not require the presence of oxygen
chemical process where mitochondria break down food molecule to produce ATP; the three stages of cellular respiration are glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and the electron transport chain
Citric Acid Cycle
in cellular respiration, series of chemical reactions that break down glucose and produce ATP; energizes electron carries that pass the energized electrons on to the electron transport chain
in cellular respiration, series of anaerobic chemical reactions in the cytoplasm that breaks down glucose into pyruvic acid; forms a net profit of two ATP molecules
Lactic Acid Fermentation
series of anaerobic chemical reactions in which pyruvic acid uses NADH to form lactic acid and NAD+, which is then used in glycolysis; supplies energy when oxygen for aerobic respiration is scarce