Biology Chapter 18 Set 2

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Taxonomy

The science of classifying living things is called _____________.

Taxonomy

the science of grouping organisms according to their characteristics and evolutionary history.

become more similar in appearance

As we move through the biological hierarchy from the kingdom to species level, organisms ____________________.

it doesn't seem to fit into either category

A mushroom is difficult to classify in Linnaeus's two-kingdom classification system because _______________________.

D

Which of the following was not a consideration for Carolus Linnaeus when he developed his system of nomenclature of organisms?

Linnaeus

Which scientist developed the system of classifying organisms by assigning them a genus and species name?

Classes

A shark's skeleton is made of cartilage while a dolphin's skeleton is made of bone. This is one reason the two organisms are placed in different _________________.

Phylum

Because both organisms in the diagram are vertebrates, they are classified in the same ___________________.

Quercus

The organism Quercus phellos is a member of the genus _________________.

toxicodendron.

Poison ivy is also known as Rhus toxicodendron. Its species identifier is ___________________.

Acer rubrum.

The red maple is also known as Acer rubrum. Its scientific name is ________________.

B.

The scientific name of an organism A. varies according to the native language of scientists. B. is the same for scientists all over the world. C. may refer to more than one species. D. may have more than one genus name.

D.

Scientists don't use the common names of organisms because A. an organism may have more than one common name. B. common names are too ambiguous. C. an organism rarely has the same name in different languages. D. All of the above

1 of each

How many genii and species identifiers can an organism have?

Latin

Scientific names are written in what language?

be in the same phylum

Two organisms in the same class but different orders will _________________.

Organisms in different genera

_____________________ may share the second word of their scientific names, may be in the same family, and may be in different orders.

Be more similar than 2 organisms in different classes, Be in the same class,and have the same species identifier

Two organisms in the same order but different families may ________________________.

classes

Kingdoms are divided into phyla, and a phylum is divided into ___________.

kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species.

The correct order of the biological hierarchy from kingdom to species is _________________.

species

The lowest hierarchy level in biological classification is the ________________.

Species

Which of the following is the least inclusive classification group?

C

Quercus rubra : Quercus phellos :: A. Anolis carolinensis : Parus carolinensis B. Erithacus rubicula : Turdus migratoria C. Aphis pomi : Aphis gossypii D. carp : goldfish

D

class : family :: A. order : phylum B. genus : class C. species : genus D. phylum : order

chemical, physical, and behavioral

Today, biologists classify organisms by their _____________, ______________, and ______________ similarities.

Phylogenetic Trees

________________ depict presumed evolutionary relationships based on a variety of types of evidence.

the common ancestor

The organism at the base of a phylogenetic tree is __________________ of all the organisms depicted in the tree.

A

The DNA sequences of 2 species of sharks would: A. be more similar than the DNA of a shark and a dolphin B. show no differences C. be very close to the DNA sequences of a dolphin D. indicate how sharks evolved

morphology, embryological development, and amino acid sequence proteins

Which types of characteristics are used in taxonomy to organize organisms? ___________________, _____________________, and __________________

Both halves of the arthropod would die, while both halves of the vertebrae embryo would become whole twin organisms.

What would happen if an early arthropod and early vertebrae embryo were split?

cladogram : evolutionary relationships

analogous characters: convergent evolution :: _________________

cladogram

A branching diagram used in taxonomy is called a _________________.

derived character

Each unique character in a cladogram that is used to assign an organism to a group is called a ________________.

Protista

Nearly all single celled eukaryotes that are either heterotrophic or photosynthetic belong to the kingdom _________.

Plantae

Most multicellular, nucleated autotrophs that carry on photosynthesis belong to the kingdom ____________.

Fungi

Multicellular, nucleated heterotrophs that always obtain food by absorbing nutrients from the environment belong to the kingdom _____________.

Fungi

An organism that breaks down organic matter, which it then absorbs is in the kingdom ______________.

cells walls, cell membranes, and gene architecture

Archaebacteria can be distinguished from eubacteria because of their differences in their ___________, _____________, and ___________

Archaebacteria

Simple, non-nucleated organisms that use hydrogen to produce methane are in the kingdom ______________

Protista

The catchall kingdom is kingdom ____________.

molecular

The three domain system of classification is based on ____________ evidence.

rRNA; embryological, fossil, morphological, and a variety of molecular

The three domain system of classification is based on similarities and differences in ___________ evidence. The six kingdom system is based on the similarities and differences in ___________ evidence

stems

Aristotle classified plants into three categories on the basis of differences in their ____________________.

taxonomy

The science of naming and classifying organisms is called ____________________.

Linnaeus

____________________ devised the two-name system of naming organisms.

characteristics

The more classification categories two species share, the more ____________________ they have in common.

animal

Biologists of Linnaeus's time classified every living thing as either plant or ____________________.

species

A genus is subdivided into smaller groups called ____________________.

scientific name

Each kind of organism on Earth is assigned a unique two-word ____________________.

Latin

All scientific names are made up of two words that are often derived from the ____________________ language.

genus

The first word of a scientific name is the ____________________ to which the organism belongs.

division

The term ____________________ is used in place of phylum when plants are classified.

phylogeny

The evolutionary history of a species is called its ____________________.

anterior end of digestive system

Most invertebrates, such as the arthropods, follow a pattern of development in which the blastopore becomes the ____________________.

protista

Eukaryotic organisms that lack specialized tissue systems are members of the kingdom ____________________.

animalia

Corals, spiders, and rodents all belong to the kingdom ____________________.

archae, bacteria, Eukarya

The domains of the three-domain system of classification are ____________________, ____________________, and ____________________.

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