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Test review for Unit 1 of English III for Liberty University Online Academy.

As a baby and young child, you went through stages of __________ that allowed you to learn English.

natural language acquisition

In the _____ stage, you used two- or three-word sentences to say everything you needed to say. You left off articles, pronouns, and prepositions.

telegraphic

In the _____ stage, you used one-word sentences.

holophrastic

Sometimes, you applied a rule everywhere, even places where it didn't apply. This tendency is called _____.

overgeneralization

A person learning a new language as an adult goes through a process called _____.

second language acquisition

You _____ your native language.

were taught

Human beings are _____ for language.

pre-wired

It is more difficult to learn a _____ language than a _____ language.

second; first

Humans learn sounds in their order of _____.

difficulty

holophrastic stage

stage 3

silent period

stage 1

adult capacity

stage 5

babbling stage

stage 2

telegraphic stage

stage 4

I putted the toys on the shelf.

adult-like conversation

Gurgle! Coo. Waaaaaah!

silent perios

Sand shoe! (I have sand in my shoes!)

telegraphic stage

ba ba, da da, ma ma!

babbling stage

Mo? (I want more!)

holophrastic stage

What is not one of the regional dialects of the United States? (General American, Standard, New England, or Southern)

Standard

The types of dialects many people speak include ethnic, regional, and _____.

social

What regional dialect is closest to Standard English?

General American

Dialects differ from one another in what aspects?

pronunciation, vocabulary, and idiom

African American Vernacular, Chicano English, and Cajun English are examples of _____ dialects.

ethnic

Teenagers tend to use their own special language with each other. This language is an example of a _____ dialect.

social

_____ is informal language used by members of a social group.

slang

_____ is technical vocabulary used i particular professions.

jargon

I reckon it's right time for supper. (regional, ethnic, or social dialect)

regional dialect

He be workin'. (regional, ethnic, or social dialect)

ethnic dialect

Pastor's message was such a blessing. (regional, ethnic, and social dialect)

social dialect

agreed-on ways to use language in different situations

usage

a common way of defining and using words

vocabulary

a common way of clearly expressing sentences

grammar

a common way of speaking and reading words

pronunciation

a common way of writing words

spelling

capitalization and punctuation rules

conventions

_____ language is used for everyday conversations in public places.

informal

_____ language follows a specific form.

formal

_____ language uses some colloquialism and slang.

informal

_____ language uses precise vocabulary.

formal

_____ language is used for ceremonies and other important occasions.

formal

_____ language is used in casual settings.

colloquial

_____ English is Standard English without precise vocabulary or specific form.

informal

_____ language is demonstrated by the statement: "This is my buddy Jon."

colloquial

_____ language is demonstrated by the statement: "I'd like you to meet John and Betty Smith."

informal

_____ language is demonstrated by the statement: "Please allow me to introduce Mr. and Mrs. Sterling Baughm."

formal

Oxford English Dictionary

ultimate dictionary authority today

the science of dictionary making

lexicography

believed that language change was the result of language corruption

language purists

a record of the way in which language is actually used

descriptive method

Dictionary of the English Language

Johnson's dictionary

attempts to slow or halt language change

language fixing

American Dictionary of the English Language

Webster's dictionary

scholars who set standards for how language should be used

grammarians

a record of scholarly opinion regarding how language should be used

prescriptive method

the use of literary texts to establish context for definitions of words

historical method

the history of a word

etymology

_____ dictionary was a grammarian's attempt to keep the language from "decaying".

Johnson's

_____ dictionary set a standard for American English.

Webster's

_____ dictionary represented the language of an educated elite.

Johnson's

_____ dictionary set a standard for British English.

Johnson's

_____ dictionary was the first to make wide-spread use of etymology.

Webster's

_____ dictionary represented the language of a broad base of educated people.

Webster's

_____ dictionary was the first to use the historical method.

Johnson's

_____ modeled patriotism and Christian conduct.

Webster's

descriptions of the "status" of a word, usually in abbreviated form (archaic, obsolete, regional, nonstandard, slang)

usage

the accepted meaning of a word

definition

the function of the word in a sentence

part of speech

the "history" of a word, beginning with the earliest language to which it can be traced

etymology

the word as it appears in other forms, correctly spelled

alternate forms

a date marking the first known appearance of the word in a written text

earliest recorded use

the word itself as it should be spelled

entry word

words meaning the same or nearly the same thing as the entry word

synonyms

the word as it should be pronounced

respelling

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