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Earth Science Chapter 11 Study Guide Sources: Holt Earth Science textbook

Deformation

The bending, tilting, and breaking of Earth's crust.

Isostasy

A condition of gravitational and buoyant equilibrium between Earth's lithosphere and asthenosphere.

Uplift

What happens to a mountain when isostasy raises it up.

Subsidence

A process in which the deposited material from an ocean/river causes the ocean floor to sink by isostasy.

Stress

The amount of force that is exerted on each unit of area.

Compression

The type of stress thar squeezes and shortens a body.

Tension

The stress that stretches and pulls a body apart.

Shear stress

A stress that distorts a body by pushing parts of a body in opposite directions.

Strain

Any change in the shape or volume of a rock that results from stress.

Brittle

An adjective used to describe materials that respond to stress by breaking or fracturing.

Ductile

An adjective used to describe materials that respond to stress by bending or deforming without breaking.

Fold

A bend in rock layers that results from stress.

Limb(s)

The sloping side/s of a fold.

Hinge

Where the limbs meet on a fold.

Axial plane

The line of symmetry on a fold.

Overturned

An adjective used to describe a fold that appears to be lying on its side.

Anticline

A fold in which the oldest layer is in the center of the fold.

Syncline

A fold in which the youngest layer is in the center of the fold.

Monocline

A fold in which both limbs are horizontal or almost horizontal.

Fracture

A break in a fold in which there is no movement of the surrounding rock.

Fault

A break in a body of rock along which one block slides relative to another; a form of brittle strain.

Fault plane

The surface or plane along which the motion occurs.

Hanging wall

In a nonvertical fault, the rock above the fault plane.

Footwall

The rock below the fault plane.

Normal fault

A fault in which the hanging wall moves downward relative to the footwall.

Reverse fault

A fault in which the hanging wall moves upward relative to the footwall.

Thrust fault

A special type of reverse fault in which the fault plane is at a low angle or is nearly horizontal.

Strike-slip fault

A fault in which the rock on either side of the fault plane slides horizontally in response to shear stress.

Slip

A verb meaning to slide.

Strike

The length of a fault.

Mountain range

A group of adjacent mountains that are related to each other in shape and structure.

Mountain system

A group of adjacent mountain ranges.

Mountain belts

A group of two mountain systems (the circum-Pacific belt to the West and the Eurasian-Melanesian belt to the East).

Folded mountains

Mountains that form when tectonic movements squeeze rock layers together into accordion-like folds.

Plateaus

Large, flat areas of rock high above sea level.

Fault-block mountains

Mountains that form where faults break Earth's crust into large blocks and some blocks drop down relative to other blocks.

Grabens

Long, narrow valleys formed by the process of fault-blocking.

Dome mountain

A circular or elliptical, almost symmetrical, elevation or structure in which the stratified rock slopes downward gently from the central point of folding.

Volcanic mountains

Mountains that form when magma erupts onto Earth's surface.

Hot spots

Volcanically active areas that lie from tectonic plate boundaries.

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