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Filtration forces water out of capillaries into tissue spaces, and the name for this waters changes from:

Plasma to fluid

Most of the water output from the body is in the form of:

Urine

Most of the water intake for the body is an form of:

beverages

All of the cations except:

bicarbonate ions

The function of ADH is to:

increase the reabsorption of water by the kidneys

An electrolyte s a substance that, in solution, dissociates into its

positive and negative ions

Water will move by osmosis to am area where there are more electrolytes

Electrolytes

Regulation of the water balance of the body is a function of the:

hypothalamus

To compensate for a state of dehydration, urinary output will

decrease

The direct effect on the kidneys of the hormone aldosterone is to:

increase the reabsorption of sodium and excretion of potassium

Proteins are significant anions which of these fluids?

plasma and intracellular fluid

Extracellular fluid includes all of these except:

water within

The absorption of calcium ions by the small intestine and kidneys is increased by

Parathyroid hormone

The normal pH range of blood is

7.35-7.45

The mechanism with the greatest capacity to correct normal pH imbalance is the

kidneys

The mechanism that works most rapidly to correct pH imbalance is the

buffer system

the bicarbonate buffer system buffer HCI by reacting form

NaCI and H2CO3

An amino acid is able to buffer a strong acid when

the amine group picks up an excess hydrogen ion

A state of acidosis affects the

CNS, causing confusion and coma

The respiratory system will help compensate for a metabolic acidosis by

increasing the respiratory

To compensate for acidosis, the kidney will excrete:

more hydrogen ions

An untreated pattern with diabetes who is in a state of ketoacidosis will:

be breathing rapidly

The hormone that increases renal excretion of sodium ions

ANP

In tissue fluid and plasma, the most abundant cation is:

Sodium

The intracellular cation that is essential for repolarization of neurons and muscle cells is

Potassium

The hormone that is most important in daily regulation of cell resorption is

Thyroxine

Heart is distributed from active organs to cooler parts of the body by:

blood

The average human body temperature is F and C is:

98.6F/37C

In a cold environment, the arterioles in the dermis will:

constrict to conserve heat

When sweating take place, excess body heat is lost in the

evaporation of sweat

When the body is at rest, the skeletal muscles produce a significant amount of heat because of:

Muscle tone

From the respiratory tract, a small amount of heat is lost in:

exhaled water vapor

The movement of air across the skin results in heat loss by the process of

convection

The part of the brain that regulates body temperature is the:

hypothalamus

The body's responses to a warm environment includes all except"

increased muscle tone

Chemicals produced during inflammation that cause fevers are called

endogenous pyrogens

A fever may be beneficial because

the growth of some pathogens may be inhibited

The term for synthesis reactions is

anabolism

The Kerbs cycle and the cytochrome transport system take place in which part of the cell?

mitochondria

The most important synthesis uses for glucose are:

pentose sugars and glycogen

Most of the ATP produced during cell respiration is produced in which stage?

cytochrome transport system

The carbon dioxide produced in cell respiration is produced in in which statge?

Krebs cycle

The most important synthesis uses for amino acids are

proteins and non-essential amino acids

Most of the ATP produced in cell respiration is produced during which stage?

cytochrome transport system

All of these vitamins are necessary for cell respiration except:

Vitamin D

The basal metabolic rate is the term for the body's heat production when the body is

at rest

In order to be used for energy production, amino acids may be changed to all of these except:

fatty acids

In order to be used for energy production, fatty acids and glycerol may be changed to all except:

glucose

In the cytochrome transport system acidosis is prevented by formation of

water

A meal consists of 20 grams of starch, 20 grams of protein, and 10 grams of fat has

250

Vitamins can best be describe as:

chemicals often necessary for the functioning enzymes

The hormone that lowers blood glucose level enabling cells to take in glucose is

Insulin

The two hormones that regulate blood calcium level are:

parathyroid hormone and calcitonin

The hormone that initiates egg or sperm production is

FSH

In Men the hormone necessary for maturation of sperm is

testosterone

In women the hormone that causes ovulation is

LH

Two hormone that cause the liver to change glycogen to glucose are:

glucagon and epinephrine

The hormone that increases protein synthesis and that use of all three food types for energy is:

thyroxine

The hormone that slows peristalsis and dilates the bronchioles

epinephrine

The hormone that has an anti-inflammaory effect is

cortisol

The hormone that increases water reabsorption by the Kidneys is:

ADH

The hormone that increases calcium reabsorption by the kidneys is

PTH

The hormone that increases sodium reabsorption by the kidneys is

Aldostrone

In women, the two hormones that promotes growth of blood vessels in the endoetrium are

estrogen and progesterone

In women, the hormone that promotes growth of corpus luteum is

LH

The hormone that stimulates milk production in the mammary gland

prolactin

The hormone that causes strong contractions of the uterus during labor is

Oxytocin

The hormone that increases the use of fats and excess amino acids for energy while sparing glucose for use by the brain

Cortisol

Two hormones that help maintain normal b/p by maintaing normal volume are:

ADH and aldosterone

Localized hormones that are synthesized from the phospholipids of cell membranes are called

protagladins

Steroid hormones are believed to exert their effect by stimulating the synthesis of

Proteins

The two - messagers mechanism of hormone action that describes the action of

protein hormones

The hormone produced by the ovaries or testes that inhibits the secretion of FSH is:

Inhibin

The hormone that brings about sleep is

Melatonin

The hormone that increases excretion of potassium by kidneys

Alderstone

The secretion of insulin in response to fluctuating blood glucose level is an

Negative feedback mechanism

Secretion of the hormone of the anterior pituitary gland is regulated by the

hypothalamus

The stimulus for secretion of glucagon

hypoglycemia

The functions of epinephrin are very similar to the function of

the sympathetic nervous system

The stimulates for secretion of aldosterone is

low blood sodium level

A renal corpuscle consists of

a glomerulus and Bowman's capsule

The kidneys are located behind the

peritoneum

All of these are found at the hilus of a kidney except the

Uretha

The cavity within the kidney collects urine is the

Renal Pelvis

The renal vein take blood from the kidney to the

Abdominal arota

All of these parts of the renal tubule except the

distal convoluted tubule

If body fluids are becoming too acidic, the kidneys will excrete more of these ions in urine

hydrogen ions

The hormone that directly increases the reabsorption of water by the kidneys:

ADH

The process of glomerular filtration takes place from the

glomerulus to bowman's;s capsule

The process of tubular reabsorption takes place from the

renal tubule to peritubular cappilaried

The renal pyramids make up the

renal medulla

Renal Filtrate differs from blood plasma in this way

there are no blood cells filtrate

When the blood level oxygen decreases, the kidney secrete

Erythropoietin

When B/P decreases, the decrease, the kidney secrete

Renin

The part of the Urinary bladder that actually eliminates the urine is the:

detrusor muscle

Voluntary control of urination is provided by the

external urethral sphincter

In tubular reabsorpion, glucose and amino acids are reasbsored by the process of:

Active transport

The glomerular filtration rate will decrease if

blood flow through the kidneys decreases

Urea is a nitrogenous water product that comes from metabolism of

amino acids

Normal values for daily urinary output and pH of urine might be

1.5 liters/6.0

Urine is propelled through a ureter by

smooth muscle

The Kidneys are protected from mechanical injury by the

rib cage and adipose tissue

If body fluids are becoming too alkaline, the kidney will excrete more these ions in urine

bicarbonate ions

Creatinine is a nitrogenous waste product that comes from energy metabolism in

the muscles

Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is produced by the ___________ and causes he kidneys to excrete __________________.

heart and sodium ions

The vitamin produced by the normal flora of the colon in amounts sufficient to meet a person's daily need is:

K

Backup of food from the small intestine to the stomach is prevented by the

pyloric sphincter

All of the following are accessory organs of digestion except

Stomach

Mechanical digestion includes all of the following except:

Conversion of starch to matlose

The hard chewing surface of a tooth is formed by

enamel

The only voluntary aspect of swallowing is

elevation of the tongue

The functions of saliva include all of the except

protein digestion

A tooth is anchored in its socket in the jaw by the

periodental membrane

The layer of the alimentary tube that is responsible for peristalsis is the

external muscle layer

In the gastric mucosa, the parietal cells secrete

pepsin

The liver Synthesis all these except

hemoglobin

When food reaches the stomach, secretion of gastric juice is stimulated by the hormone

gastrin

Bile is stored in the

gallbladder

Bile and pancreatic juice carried to the duodenum by the

common bile duct

Bicarbonate pancreatic juice is important to neutralize hydrochloric enters the

duodenum

The digestion of protein involves all of these except

amylase from the pancreas

The capillary networks and lacteals in the villi of the small intestine are important for

absorption of nutrients

The absorption of amino acids and glucose into the capillary networks of the villi is accomplished by the process of

active transport

The functions of the large intestine include all these except

digestion of starch

By the process of transmission, the liver synthesizes the

non-essential amino acids

The stimulates for the defection reflex is

stretching the rectum

The liver that stores all of these except

fat

The liver is stable to detoxify potentially harmful substances by means of the synthesis specific

enzymes

Greater surface area in the small intestine is provided by all of these except

rugae

The "brush border" refers to the

microvilli of the small intestine

The function of the enteroendocrine cells of the stomach is the production of

gastrin

The enteric nervous system is found in all of these organs except the

liver

In the small intestine, the Peyer's patches are:

The lymph nodules

Contraction of the gallbladder is stimulated by:

Cholecystokinin

The cells of the liver that phagocytize pathogens are

macrophages and kupffer cells

The upper respiratory system tract includes all of these except the

primary bronchi

During swallowing, the larynx is covered by the

epiglottis

During swallowing, the nasopharynx is covered by the

soft plate

The trachea is kept open by which tissue?

cartilage

In the nasal cavities and trachea, mucus and pathogens are swept to the pharynx by

cilitaed epithelium

The part of the pharynx that is a passageway for air only is the

nasopharynx

Inaled air passes from the trachea to the

primary bronchi

Cartilage supports and keeps open all of these structures except the

bronchioles

The serous fluid between the pleural membranes keeps the membranes together and

prevent friction

The primary bronchi and the pulmonary blood vessels enter the lungs at the

hilus on the medial side

The tissue fluid that lines the alveoli is important to

permit gas diffusion of gasses

Within the alvoli, surface tension is decreased and inflation is possible because of the presence

pulmonary surfactant

The respiratory centers in the brain is located in the

medulla and pons

During inhalation, the thoracic cavity is enlarged from the top to bottom by contraction of the

Diaphragm which moves down

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