End of Chapter Quizzes - Micro Final

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Rio Salado Micro Final

The transfer of DNA from a donor to a recipient cell by a bacteriophage is

Transduction

Feedback inhibition differs from repression because feedback inhibition

Stops the action of preexisting enzymes

Bacteria can acquire antibiotic resistance by
Mutation
Insertion of transposons
Acquiring plasmids
All of the above

All of the above

Suppose you inoculated three flasks of minimal salts broth with E. coli. Flask A contains glucose. Flask B contains glucose and lactose. Flask C contains lactose. After a few hours of incubation, you test the flasks for the presence of β-galactosidase. Which flask(s) do you predict will have this enzyme?

flask c

Plasmids differ from transposons because plasmids

Are self-replicated outside the chromosome

The mechanism by which the presence of glucose inhibits the lac operon is

Catabolite repression

The mechanism by which lactose controls the lac operon is

Induction

Two daughter cells are most likely to inherit which one of the following from the parent cell?
A change in a nucleotide in mRNA
A change in a nucleotide in tRNA
A change in a nucleotide in rRNA
A change in a nucleotide in DNA
A change in a protein

A change in a nucleotide in DNA

Which of the following is not a method of horizontal gene transfer?
Binary fission
Conjugation
Integration of a transposon
Transduction
Transformation

Binary fission

Restriction enzymes were first discovered with the observation that

Phage DNA is destroyed is a host cell

The DNA probe, 3'GGCTTA, will hybridize with DNA containing

5'CCGAAT

Which of the following is the fourth basic step of genetic engineering?

Ligation

The following steps are used to make cDNA. Which is the second step?
RNA processing to remove introns
Reverse transcription
Transcription
Translation

RNA processing to remove introns

If you put a gene in a virus, the next step in genetic engineering would be

Transduction

You have a small gene that you want replicated by PCR. You add radioactively labeled nucleotides to PCR thermalcycler. After three replication cycles, what percentage of the DNA single-strands are radioactively labeled?

87.5%

Pieces of human DNA stored in yeast cells.

library

A population of cells carrying a desired plasmid.

clone

Self-replicating DNA for transmitting a gene from one organism to another.

vector

A gene that hybridizes with mRNA.

antisense

The transfer of DNA from a donor to a recipient as naked DNA is solution is

Transformation

A gene is best defined as

A sequence of nucleotides in DNA that codes for a functional product.

Which of the following pairs is mismatched?
DNA polymerase - makes a molecule of DNA from a DNA template
RNA polymerase - makes a molecule of RNA from an RNA template
DNA ligase - joins segments of DNA
Transposase - insertion of DNA segments into DNA
DNA gyrase - coils and twists DNA

RNA polymerase - makes a molecule of RNA from an RNA template

Which of the following statements is false?
DNA polymerase joins nucleotides in one direction only.
The leading strand of DNA is made continuously.
The lagging strand of DNA is started by an RNA primer.
DNA replication proceeds in one direction around the bacterial chromosome.
Multiple replication forks are possible on a bacterial chromosome.

DNA replication proceeds in one direction around the bacterial chromosome.

In the figure above, which colonies are streptomycin-resistant and leucine-requiring?

In sample with strep added --> no dots
in sample with leucine added --> dots
in sample with both added --> dots
sample with neither added --> no dots (requires leucine!)

In the table below, what will be the result of conjugation between cultures 1 and 2?
Culture 1: F+, leucine+, histidine+
Culture 2: F−, leucine−, histidine−

1 will remain the same; 2 will become F+,
Genotype remains same: leucine−, histidine−

Conjugation differs from reproduction because conjugation __________.

Transfers DNA horizontally, to cells in the same generation.

The necessary ingredients for DNA synthesis can be mixed together in a test tube. The DNA polymerase is from Thermus aquaticus and the template is from a human cell. The DNA synthesized would be most similar to

Human DNA.

The mechanism by which the presence of glucose inhibits the arabinose operon.

Catabolic repression

The mechanism by which the presence of arabinose controls the arabinose operon.

Induction

If you knew the sequence of nucleotides within a gene, which one of the following could you determine with the most accuracy?

The primary structure of the protein

The following steps are used to make DNA fingerprints. What is the third step?
A) Perform electrophoresis.
B) Collect DNA.
C) Add stain.
D) Digest with a restriction enzyme.

E) Lyse cells.

Digest with a restriction enzyme.

Which of the following can be used to make recombinant DNA?
Protoplast fusion
Tungsten "bullets"
Microinjection
Transformation
All of the above.

All of the above.

If you have inserted a gene in the Ti, the next step in genetic engineering is

Inserting Ti into Agrobacterium.

Suicide genes can be controlled by the fimbriae-gene operator. This would result in the death of

Cells making fimbriae

Pieces of DNA stored in yeast cells are called a

Library.

A population of cells carrying a desired plasmid is called a

Clone.

Self-replicating DNA used to transmit a gene from one organism to another is a

Vector.

A source of heat-stable DNA polymerase is

Thermus aquaticus.

Which organism naturally possesses the Ti plasmid?

Agrobacterium tumefaciens

Which organism degrades PCBs and has been engineered to produce BT toxin?

Pseudomonas

Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology differs from Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology in that the former

Groups bacteria according to phylogenetic relationships

Bacillus and Lactobacillus are not in the same order. This indicates that which one of the following is not sufficient to assign an order to a taxon?

Morphological characteristics

Which of the following is used to classify organisms into the Kingdom of Fungi?

Absorptive; possessing cell wall; prokaryotic

Which of the following is not true about scientific nomenclature?

Names vary with geographical location.

You could identify an unknown bacterium by all of the following except

Percentage of guanine + cytosine

The wall less mycoplasmas are considered to be related to gram-positive bacteria. Which of the following would provide the most compelling evidence of this?

They share common rRNA sequences.

Into which group would you place a multicellular organism that has a mouth and lives inside the human liver?

Animalla

Into which group would you place a photosynthetic organism that lacks a nucleus and has a thin peptidoglycan wall surrounded by an outer membrane?

Proteobacteria (gram-negative bacteria)

1. 9 + 2 flagella
2. 70S ribosome
3. fimbria
4. nucleus
5. peptidoglycan
6. plasma membrane
Which is (are) found in all three domains?
2, 6
5
2, 4, 6
1, 3, 5
all six

2, 6

1. 9 + 2 flagella
2. 70S ribosome
3. fimbria
4. nucleus
5. peptidoglycan
6. plasma membrane
Which is (are) found only in prokaryotes?

3,5

Similar _____ are grouped into a _____; which are are grouped into a_____; which are grouped int a ______; which are grouped into_______;which are grouped into_______;which are grouped into_______;

Species, Genus, Family, Order, Class, Phylum, Kingdom
Dear King Philip Can Only Find Green Socks

All of the following are true about archaea except

They evolved before bacteria.

Which of the following characterizes the Domain Bacteria?

Prokaryotic cells; ester linkages in phospholipids

If two organisms have similar rRNA sequences, you can conclude all of the following except
A) They will have similar G-C ratios.
B) They evolved from a common ancestor.
C) They will both ferment lactose.
D) They are related.
E) None of the above.

They will both ferment lactose.

Amino acid sequencing provides indirect information about

Nucleotide bases making up a gene.

The phylogenetic classification of bacteria is based on

rRNA sequences.

All of the following are reasons for classifying viruses in the three domains and not in a fourth domain except
Viruses are obligate parasites.
Viruses direct anabolic pathways of host cells.
Some viruses can incorporate their genome into a host's genome.
Viruses are not composed of cells.

Viruses are not composed of cells.

Which of the following best defines a strain?

A group of cells all derived from a single parent.

Serological testing is based on the fact that

Antibodies react specifically with an antigen.

Phage typing is based on the fact that

Bacterial viruses attack specific cells.

In the figure above, which figure shows the most closely related organisms?

The completely parallel lines

If you Gram-stained the bacteria that live in the human intestine, you would expect to find mostly

Gram-negative, nitrogen-fixing bacteria

Which of the following does not belong with the others?

Lactobacillales

Pathogenic bacteria can be
Motile
Rods
Cocci
Anaerobic
All of the above

all of the above

Which of the following is an intracellular parasite?
Rickettsia
Mycobacterium
Bacillus
Staphylococcus
Streptococcus

Rickettsia

Which of the following terms is the most specific?
bacillus
Bacillus (italicized)
Gram-positive
Endospore-forming rods and cocci
Anaerobic

Bacillus (italicized)

Which one of the following does not belong with the others?
Enterococcus
Lactobacillus
Staphylococcus
Streptococcus
None of the above

Staphylococcus

Which of the following pairs is mismatched?
Anaerobic endospore-forming gram-positive rods - Clostridium
Facultatively anaerobic gram-negative rods - Escherichia
Facultatively anaerobic gram-negative rods - Shigella
Pleomorphic gram-positive rods -Corynebacterium
Spirochete- Helicobacter

Spirochete - Helicobacter

Spirillum is not classified as a spirochete because spirochetes

Possess axial filaments

When Legionella was newly discovered, it was classified with the pseudomonads because

It is an aerobic gram-negative rod

Cyanobacteria differ from purple and green phototrophic bacteria because cyanobacteria

Produce oxygen during photosynthesis

Which of the following are found primarily in the intestines of humans?
Gram-negative aerobic rods and cocci
Aerobic, helical bacteria
Facultatively anaerobic gram-negative rods
Gram-positive cocci
None of the above

Facultatively anaerobic gram-negative rods

Which of the following is a characteristic of Clostridium?
Endospore-forming rod
Mycobacteria
Gram-negative aerobic cocci
Anaerobic gram-negative rods
None of the above

Endospore-forming rod

Which of the following is not a characteristic of the regular, nonsporing gram-positive rods?
Aerotolerant
Fermentative metabolism
Don't produce endospores
Nonpathogenic
None of the above

Nonpathogenic

Which of the following is not a characteristic of Neisseria?
Requires X and V factors
Cocci
Gram-negative
Oxidase-positive
None of the above

Requires X and V factors

Staphylococcus and Streptococcus can be easily differentiated in a laboratory by which one of the following?

Growth in high salt concentrations

Which of the following is not gram-negative?
Pseudomonas
Salmonella
Streptococcus
Bacteroides
Rickettsia

Streptococcus

Escherichia coli belongs to the

Proteobacteria.

Which one of the following does not belong with the others?
Bacillus
Escherichia
Lactobacillus
Staphylococcus
Streptococcus

Escherichia

A primary difference between cyanobacteria and purple and green phototrophic bacteria is

Electron donor for CO2 reduction.

You have isolated a prokaryotic cell. The first step in identification is a(n)

Gram stain

How many phyla are represented in the following list of organisms:
Echinococcus, Cyclospora, Aspergillus, Taenia, Toxoplasma, Trichinella?

3

1. metacercaria
2. redia
3. adult
4. miracidium
5. cercaria
Put the above stages in order of development, beginning with the egg:

4, 2, 5, 1, 3

1. metacercaria
2. redia
3. adult
4. miracidium
5. cercaria
If a snail is the first intermediate host of a parasite with these stages, which stage would be found in the snail?

2

Which of the following statements about yeasts are true?
(1) Yeasts are fungi.
(2) Yeasts can form pseudohyphae.
(3) Yeasts produce asexually by budding.
(4) Yeasts are facultatively anaerobic.
(5) All yeasts are pathogenic.
(6) All yeasts are dimorphic.

1,2,3,4

Which event follows cell fusion in an ascomycete?

Ascospore formation

Ascospore formation

Anopheles

Fleas are the intermediate host for Dipylidium caninum tapeworm and dogs are the definitive host. Which stage of the parasite could be found in the flea?

Cysticerus larva

These are obligate intracellular parasites that lack mitochondria.

Microspora

These are nonmotile parasites with special organelles for penetrating host tissue.

Apicomplexa

These photosynthetic organisms can cause paralytic shellfish poisoning.

Dinoflagellates

All of the following statements about fungi are true except
All fungi are unicellular.
All fungi have eukaryotic cells.
Fungi are heterotrophic.
Most fungi are aerobic.
Few fungi are pathogenic to humans.

All fungi are unicellular.

All of the following statements about helminths are true except
They are heterotrophic.
They are multicellular animals.
They have eukaryotic cells.
All are parasites.
Some have male and female reproductive organs in one animal.

All are parasites.

All of the following are true about protozoa except
They have eukaryotic cells.
All make cysts.
They may reproduce sexually.
They may have flagella or cilia.
None of the above.

All make cysts.

Fungi, more often than bacteria, are responsible for decomposition of plant material because

They can tolerate low-moisture conditions.

Which of the following statements is not true?
A lichen doesn't exist if the fungal and algal partners are separated.
Lichens are parasites.
In a lichen, the alga produces carbohydrates.
In a lichen, the fungus provides the holdfast.
Lichens are important soil producers.

Lichens are parasites.

Which of the following pairs are mismatched?
1. Arthrospore 1 formed by fragmentation
2. Sporangiospore 1 formed within hyphae
3. Conidiospore 1 formed in a chain
4. Blastoconidium 1 formed from a bud
5. Chlamydospore 1 formed in a sac

2 and 5

Which of the following pairs is mismatched?
Dinoflagellates - paralytic shellfish poisoning
Brown algae - algin
Red algae - agar
Diatoms - petroleum
Green algae - prokaryotic

Green algae - prokaryotic

Transmission of helminthic diseases to humans is usually by

Gastrointestinal route.

All of the following statements about algae are true except
They use light as their energy source.
They use CO2 as their carbon source.
They produce oxygen from hydrolysis of water.
All are unicellular.
Some are capable of sexual reproduction.

All are unicellular.

Which one of the following does not belong with the others?
Cryptosporidium
Entamoeba
Giardia
Plasmodium
Trypanosoma

Giardia

Place the following in the most likely order for biosynthesis o a bacteriophage.
1. phage lysozyme
2. mRNA
3. DNA
4. viral proteins
5. DNA polymerase

2, 5, 3, 4, 1

The molecule serving as mRNA can be incorporated in the newly synthesized virus capsids of all of the following except
+ strand RNA picornaviruses
+ strand RNA togaviruses
− strand RNA rhabdoviruses
double-stranded RNA reoviruses
double-stranded DNA herpesviruses

- strand RNA rhabdoviruses

A virus with RNA-dependent RNA polymerase

Synthesizes double-strand RNA from an RNA template

Which of the following would be the first step in the biosynthesis of a virus with reverse transcriptase?
A complementary strand of RNA must be synthesized
Double-stranded RNA must be synthesized
A complementary strand of DNA must be synthesized from an RNA template
A complementary strand of DNA must be synthesized from a DNA template
None of the above

A complementary strand of DNA must be synthesized from an RNA template

An example of lysogeny in animals could be
Slow viral infections
Latent viral infections
T-even bacteriophages
Infections resulting in cell death
None of the above

Latent viral infections

The ability of a virus to infect an organism is regulated by
The host species
The type of cells
The availability of an attachment site
Cell factors necessary for viral replication
All of the above

All of the above

Which of the following statements is not true?
Viruses contain DNA of RNA
The nucleic acid of a virus is surrounded by protein coat
Viruses multiply inside living cells using viral mRNA, tRNA, and ribosomes
Viruses cause the synthesis of specialized infectious elements
Viruses multiply inside living cells

Viruses multiply inside living cells using viral mRNA, tRNA, and ribosomes

Place the following in the order in which they are found in a host cell
1. capsid proteins
2. infective phage particles
3. phage nucleic acid

3, 1, 2

Which of the following does not initiate DNA synthesis?
A double-stranded DNA virus (Poxviridae)
A DNA virus with reverse transcriptase (Hepadnaviridae)
An RNA virus with reverse transcriptase (Retroviridae)
A single-stranded RNA virus (Togaviridae)
None of the above

A single-stranded RNA virus (Togaviridae)

A viral species is not defined on the basis of the disease symptoms it causes. The best example of this is
Polio
Rabies
Hepatitis
Chickenpox ad shingles
Measles

Hepatitis

In which of the following ways do viruses differ from bacteria?
Viruses are filterable.
Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites.
Viruses don't have any nucleic acid.
Viruses are not composed of cells.
All of the above.

Viruses are not composed of cells.

Which of the following provides the most significant support for the idea that viruses are nonliving chemicals?
They are not composed of cells.
They are filterable.
They cannot reproduce themselves outside of a host.
They cause diseases similar to those caused by chemicals.
They are chemically simple.

They cannot reproduce themselves outside of a host.

Which of the following is not true about spikes?
They are used for penetration.
They are used for absorption.
They may cause hemagglutination.
They are only found on enveloped viruses.
None of the above.

They are used for penetration.

Which of the following is not used as a criterion to classify viruses?
Biochemical tests
Morphology
Nucleic acid
Size
Number of capsomeres

Biochemical tests

Which of the following is not a method of culturing viruses?
In laboratory animals
In culture media
In embryonated eggs
In cell culture
None of the above

In culture media

What does a complex virus look like?

Long Spider with diamond on its head

An infectious protein is a
Bacteriophage
Prion
Retrovirus
Viroid
None of the above

Prion

An envelope is acquired during which of the following steps?
Penetration
Adsorption
Uncoating
Release
None of the above

Release

**3d Diamond, spider diamond, 2d diamond w angry cloud, angry cloud
In the figure above, the structures illustrated are composed of

Capsomere

Which of the following statements is not true?
E. coli never causes disease.
E. coli provides vitamin K for its host.
E. coli often exists in a mutual relationship with humans.
E. coli gets nutrients from intestinal contents.

E. coli never causes disease.

Which of the following is not one Koch's postulates?
The same pathogen must be present in every case of the disease.
The pathogen must be isolated and grown in pure culture from the diseased host.
The pathogen from pure culture must cause the disease when inoculated into a healthy, susceptible laboratory animal.
The disease must be transmitted from a diseased animal to a healthy, susceptible animal by some form of contact.
The pathogen must be isolated in pure culture from an experimentally infected lab animal.

The disease must be transmitted from a diseased animal to a healthy, susceptible animal by some form of contact.

A Maryland woman was hospitalized with dehydration; Vibio cholerae and Plesiomonas shigelloides were isolated form the patient. She had neither traveled outside the U.S. nor eaten raw shellfish during the preceding month. She had attended a party two days before her hospitalization. Two other people at the party had acute diarrheal illness and elevated levels of serum antibodies against Vibrio. Everyone at the party ate crabs and rice pudding in coconut milk. Crabs left over from this party were served at a second party. One of the 20 people at the second party had onset of mild diarrhea. Specimens from 14 of these people were negative for virbiocidal antibodies. The description above is an example of what type of transmission

Vehicle transmission

A Maryland woman was hospitalized with dehydration; Vibio cholerae and Plesiomonas shigelloides were isolated form the patient. She had neither traveled outside the U.S. nor eaten raw shellfish during the preceding month. She had attended a party two days before her hospitalization. Two other people at the party had acute diarrheal illness and elevated levels of serum antibodies against Vibrio. Everyone at the party ate crabs and rice pudding in coconut milk. Crabs left over from this party were served at a second party. One of the 20 people at the second party had onset of mild diarrhea. Specimens from 14 of these people were negative for virbiocidal antibodies.The etiologic agent of the disease is

Vibrio cholerae

A Maryland woman was hospitalized with dehydration; Vibio cholerae and Plesiomonas shigelloides were isolated form the patient. She had neither traveled outside the U.S. nor eaten raw shellfish during the preceding month. She had attended a party two days before her hospitalization. Two other people at the party had acute diarrheal illness and elevated levels of serum antibodies against Vibrio. Everyone at the party ate crabs and rice pudding in coconut milk. Crabs left over from this party were served at a second party. One of the 20 people at the second party had onset of mild diarrhea. Specimens from 14 of these people were negative for virbiocidal antibodies. The source of the disease was

Crabs

The LD50 is present in the dilution where # animals died and # animals survived is ______.
= "lethal dose" of 50% of test group

equal

Which of the following is not a portal of entry for pathogens?
Mucous membranes of the respiratory tract
Mucous membranes of the gastrointestinal tract
Skin
Blood
Parenteral route

Blood

An encapsulated bacterium can be virulent because the capsule

resists phagocytosis.

Which of the following statements is true?
The primary goal of a pathogen is to kill the host.
Evolution selects for the most virulent pathogens.
A successful pathogen doesn't kill its host before it is transmitted.
A successful pathogen never kills its host.

A successful pathogen doesn't kill its host before it is transmitted.

The most selective antimicrobial activity would be exhibited by a drug that
Inhibits cell wall synthesis
Inhibits protein synthesis
Injures the plasma membrane
Inhibits nucleic acid synthesis
All of the above

inhibits cell wall synthesis

Antibiotics that inhibit translation have side effects at....

At the 70S ribosomes in eukaryotic cells

Which of the following will not affect eukaryotic cells?
Inhibition of the mitotic spindle
Binding with sterols
Binding to 80S ribosomes
Binding to DNA
None of the above

None of the above

Cell membrane damage causes death because

Cell contents leak out

What synthesizes a complimentary strand of DNA (cDNA)? What starts a fragment of a lagging strand using a primer?

DNA polymerase, RNA polymerase

Comlimentary DNA strands (cDNA) have no ___ base and the base pairs are

No uracil
A-T, C-G

inserting a base pair to a DNA sequence creates what type of mutation?

frameshift

A mutagen that replaces a normal base is a

Nucleoside Analog

A mutagen that causes the formation of pyrimidine dimers

nonionizing radiation

A test that states a mutated cell can return to a normal cell by means of another mutation

Ames Test (for cancer)

How does UV radiation affect a strand?

adjacent T polymerize
(TTT)

What technique combines DNA through conjugation, transduction and transformation? What technique synthesizes artificial DNA?

Recombinant DNA, biotechnology (genetic engineering)

A segment of DNA made by copying an RNA strand using DNA polymerase

cDNA

A desired gene can be spliced into a _____ and inserted into a cell by
Transformation: ______
Transduction: ______

Transformation: plasmid
Transduction: viral genome

An enzyme with the recognition sequence with cutting sites resembling G↓GATCCGCTAG↑G contain what?

Sticky ends

Fragments of DNA produced with the same _______ enzymes will spontaneously anneal to each other at their _______

restriction enzymes,
sticky ends

Name 2 uses for recombination DNA

gene for pest resistance inserted into plants
Human growth hormone treats stunted growth

three domains:
In this system, plants, animals, fungi, and protists belong to the ____ Domain. Bacteria with peptidoglycan form the second domain, and ______ Domain includes prokaryotes that do not have peptidoglycan in their cell walls

Eukarya, Bacteria, and Archaea.
Eukarya, Archaea

Organisms are grouped into ____ according to phylogenetic relationships, meaning that they come from a common ancesto

taxa

____ is the science of classifying organisms to show relationships and ____ is the evolutionary history of a group of organism

taxonomy,
phylogeny

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