A&P II practical: muscle actions, insertions, origins

112 terms by bekahlouie 

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pectoralis minor insertion

coracoid process of scapula

deltoid origin

clavicle and scapula

deltoid insertion

deltoid tuberosity

biceps brachii insertion

radial tuberosity

brachialis insertion

coronoid process of ulna

brachioradialis insertion

styloid process of radius

pronator teres origin

common flexor tendon of medial epicondyle of humerus

flexor carpi radialis origin

common flexor tendon of medial epicondyle of humerus

palmaris longus origin

common flexor tendon of medial epicondyle

flexor carpi ulnaris origin

common flexor tendon of medial epicondyle of humerus

triceps brachii insertion

olecranon process of ulna

extensor carpi radialis longus origin

common extensor tendon of lateral epicondyle of humerus

extensor carpi radialis brevis origin

common extensor tendon of lateral epicondyle

extensor digitorum origin

common extensor tendon of lateral epicondyle

extensor carpi ulnaris origin

common extensor tendon of lateral epicondyle

quadriceps femoris insertion

tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament

extensor digitorum longus insertion

middle and distal phalanges of four lesser toes (2-5)

extensor hallucis longus insertion

base of distal phalanx of great toe

gastrocnemius insertion

calcaneus via calcaneal tendon

soleus insertion

calcaneus

flexor digitorum longus insertion

bases of distal phalanges (2-5)

flexor hallucis longus insertion

base of distal phalanx of great toe

pectoralis major

flexion, adduction and medial rotation of the arm at the glenohumeral joint

pectoralis minor

draws scapula down and anteriorly against thoracic wall

serratus anterior

draws scapula laterally and forward

external intercostals

elevates ribs and help breathe in

deltoid

abducts arm and flexion and medial rotation of the arm at the glenohumeral joint

subscapularis

medial rotation and adduction of the arm at the glenohumeral joint **rotator cuff muscle

trapezius

elevates scapulae

latissimus dorsi

adducts and medially rotates the humerus of the arm at the glenohumeral joint. "swimmer's back"

levator scapulae

elevates scapulae

rhomboids (group)

retracts scapulae

supraspinatus

abduction of the arm at the glenohumeral joint **rotator cuff muscle

infraspinatus

rotates humerus laterally **rotator cuff muscle

teres minor

rotates humerus laterally **rotator cuff muscle

teres major

medial rotation and extension of the arm at the glenohumeral joint

biceps brachii

supination of the forearm

brachialis

flexion of the forearm at the elbow

brachioradialis

flexion of the forearm at the elbow

pronator teres

pronation of the forearm at the elbow

flexor carpi radialis

flexes the wrist

palmaris longus

flexes the wrist

flexor carpi ulnaris

flexes the wrist

flexor digitorum superficialis

flexes proximal interphalangeal joints of digits 2-4 (only name and action)

flexor digitorium profundus

flexes distal interphalangeal joints of digits 2-5 (only name and action)

triceps brachii

extension of the forearm at the elbow

extensor carpi radialis longus

extends the wrist

extensor carpi radialis brevis

extends the wrist

extensor digitorum

extends digits 2-4

extensor carpi ulnaris

extends the wrist

rectus abdominis

compress abdominal contents, flex vertebral column

external abdominal oblique

compress abdominal contents, flex vertebral column

internal abdominal oblique

compress abdominal contents, flex vertebral column

transversus abdominis

compress abdominal contents

gluteus maximus

extension of the femur at the hip

gluteus medius

abducts femur at the hip

gluteus minimus

abducts femur at the hip

four parts of quadriceps femoris

rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, vastus intermedius

rectus femoris

flexes the thigh at the hip

vastus lateralis

extends the leg at the knee

vastus medialis

extends the leg at the knee

vastus intermedius

extends the leg at the knee

three components of buttocks

gluteus maximus, medius, minimus

sartorius

flexes the thigh at the hip, flexes the leg at the knee

adductor longus

adducts and medially rotates the thigh at the hip

gracilis

adducts thigh at the hip, flexes leg at knee

three parts of hamstrings

biceps femoris, semitendinosus, semimembranosus

biceps femoris

flexes leg at the knee

semitendinosus

flexes leg at the knee

semimembranosus

flexes leg at the knee

tibialis anterior

dorsiflexion of the foot at the ankle

extensor digitorum longus

extension of toes 2-5 and dorsiflexion of the foot

extensor hallucis longus

extension of the great toe and dorsiflexion of the foot

gastrocnemius

plantar flexes foot and flexes knee

soleus

plantar flexes the foot

flexor digitorum longus

flexes toes 2-5

flexor hallucis longus

flexes the great toe

fibularis (peroneus) longus

eversion and plantar flexion of the foot

fibularis (peroneus) brevis

eversion of the foot

parts of a reflex arc

sensor, sensory (afferent) neurons, synapse with interneurons or CNS integration, motor (efferent) neurons, effector

baroreceptor

pressure receptor

mechanoreceptor

detect mechanical pressure, found in skin, ears

thermoreceptors

detect changes in temperature

nociceptors

detect pain

chemoreceptors

detect changes in pH, found in tongue and nose

photoreceptors

detect light (rods and cones)

stretch receptors

very specialized, 'muscle spindles'

localized receptors

chemoreceptors, photoreceptors, muscle spindles

randomly (uniformly) distributed receptors

thermorecptors, mechanoreceptors, nocireceptors (usually those found in skin)

high density receptors

each receptor has a smaller receptive field (fingers, palms, face)

low density receptors

each receptor has a larger receptive field (back, arms, legs)

specific gravity

water/ion ratio of urine

what should not be in pee?

glucose, blood, proteins, bilirubin, ketone bodies, WBCs

what causes glucose in urine?

diabetes

what causes blood in urine?

renal failure

what causes proteins in urine?

renal failure, high blood pressure, after exercise

what causes bilirubin in urine?

liver failure

what causes ketone bodies in urine?

precursor to diabetes, starvation, low carb diet

what causes WBCs in urine?

UTI-urinary tract infection

normal range of pH in urine

5.0-9.0

normal range of glucose in urine

usually zero

normal range of ketone bodies in urine

usually zero

normal range of bilirubin in urine

usually zero

normal range of Hb in urine

usually zero

normal range of RBCs in urine

usually zero

normal range of WBCs in urine

usually zero

normal range of protein in urine

usually zero

normal range of Specific gravity in urine

1.001-1.035

normal range of nitrates in urine

usually zero

normal range of urobilinogen in urine

0.2-1.0 mg/d

low specific gravity

1.001 pure H2O, very dilute

high specific gravity

urine is concentrated, usually dehydrated, not much H2O

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