Mental activity that goes on in the brain when a person is organizing and attempting to understand information and communicating information to others.
Mental representations that stand for objects or events and have a picture-like quality
ideas that represent a class or category of objects, events, or activities. Like "birds" we can think about the concept of "birds" without dealing with each and every specific bird.
basic level type
an example of a type of concept around with other similar objects are organized, such as "dog" "cat" or "pear"
the most specific category of a concept, such as one's pet dog, or a pear in one's hand
process of cognition that occurs when a goal must be reached by thinking and behaving in certain ways
trial and error (mechanical solution)
problem-solving method in which one possible solution after another is tried until a successful one is found
an educated guess based on prior experiences that helps narrow down the possible solutions for a problem. Also known as "rule of thumb"
heuristic in which the difference between the starting situation and the goal is determined and then steps are taken to reduce the difference
a block to problem solving that comes from thinking about objects in terms of only their typical functions
the tendency for people to persist in using problem-solving patterns that have worked for them in the past
the tendency to search for evidence that fits one's beliefs while ignoring any evidence that does not fit those beliefs
type of thinking in which a problem is seen as having only one answer, and all lines of thinking will eventually lead to that single answer, using previous knowledge and logic
type of thinking in which a person starts from one point and comes up with many different ideas or possibilities based on that point
the ability to learn from one's experiences, acquire knowledge, and use resources effectively in adapting to new situations or solving problems
triarchic theory of intelligence
Sternberg's theory that there are three kinds of intelligence: analytical, creative, and practical
the ability to break problems down into component parts, or analysis, for problem solving
the ability to deal with new and different concepts and to come up with new ways of solving problems
the tendency of a test to produce the same scores again and again each time it is given to the same people
deviation IQ scores
a type of intelligence measure that assumes that IQ is normally distributed around a mean of 100 with a standard deviation of about 15
process of giving the test to a large group of people that represents the kind of people for whom the test is designed
scores from the standardization group, the standards against which all others who take the test would be compared
condition in which a person's behavioral and cognitive skills exist at an earlier developmental stage than the skills of others who are the same chronological age. A more acceptable term for mental retardation
the 2 percent of the population falling on the upper end of the normal curve and typically possessing an IQ of 130 or above
the awareness of and ability to manage one's own emotions as well as the ability to be self-motivated, able to feel what others feel, and socially skilled
a system for combining symbols so that an unlimited number of meaningful statements can be made for the purpose of communicating with others
aspects of language involving the practial ways of communicating with others, or the social "niceties" of language