According to Jung, emotionally charged images and thought forms that have universal meaning.
A theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behavior.
According to Jung, a storehouse of latent memory traces inherited from people's ancestral past.
Putting group goals ahead of personal goals and defining one's identity in terms of the groups one belongs to.
According to Adler, efforts to overcome imagined or real inferiorities by developing one's abilities.
Whatever one is aware of at a particular point in time.
Largely unconscious reactions that protect a person from unpleasant emotions such as anxiety and guilt.
Diverting emotional feelings (usually anger) from their original source to a substitute target.
According to Freud, the decision-making component of personality that operates according to the reality principle.
People who tend to be interested in the external world of people and things.
Statistical analysis of correlations among many variables to identify closely related clusters of variables.
According to Freud, failure to move forward from one psychosexual stage to another as expected.
Hierarchy of needs
Maslow's systematic arrangement of needs according to priority, which assumes that basic needs must be met before less basic needs are aroused.
The tendency to mold one's interpretation of the past to fit how events actually turned out.
A theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, especially their freedom and their potential for personal growth.
According to Freud, the primitive, instinctive component of personality that operates according to the pleasure principle.
Bolstering self-esteem by forming an imaginary or real alliance with some person or group.
The degree of disparity between one's self-concept and one's actual experience.
Putting personal goals ahead of group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group memberships.
People who tend to be preoccupied with the internal world of their own thoughts, feelings, and experiences.
A person whose behavior is observed by another.
The strengthening of a response because it is followed by the removal of an aversive (unpleasant) stimulus.
A type of learning that occurs when an organism's responding is influenced by the observation of others, who are called models.
According to Freud, children's manifestation of erotically tinged desires for their opposite-sex parent, accompanied by feelings of hostility toward their same-sex parent.
According to Jung, the level of awareness that houses material that is not within one's conscious awareness because it has been repressed or forgotten.
An individual's unique constellation of consistent behavioral traits.
A durable disposition to behave in a particular way in a variety of situations.
The assumption that one must appreciate individuals' personal, subjective experiences to truly understand their behavior.
According to Freud, the principle upon which the id operates, demanding immediate gratification of its urges.
According to Freud, the level of awareness that contains material just beneath the surface of conscious awareness that can easily be retrieved.
Attributing one's own thoughts, feelings, or motives to another.
Psychological tests that ask subjects to respond to vague, ambiguous stimuli in ways that may reveal the subjects' needs, feelings, and personality traits.
All the diverse theories descended from the work of Sigmund Freud that focus on unconscious mental forces.
According to Freud, developmental periods with a characteristic sexual focus that leave their mark on adult personality.
Creating false but plausible excuses to justify unacceptable behavior.
Behaving in a way that's exactly the opposite of one's true feelings.
According to Freud, the principle on which the ego operates, which seeks to delay gratification of the id's urges until appropriate outlets and situations can be found.
The assumption that internal mental events, external environmental events, and overt behavior all influence each other.
A reversion to immature patterns of behavior.
Keeping distressing thoughts and feelings buried in the unconscious.
People with exceptionally healthy personalities, marked by continued personal growth.
A collection of beliefs about one's own nature, unique qualities, and typical behavior.
One's belief about one's ability to perform behaviors that should lead to expected outcomes.
Focusing on positive feedback from others, exaggerating one's strengths, and seeing oneself as above average.
A person's overall assessment of her or his personal adequacy or worth.
Personality tests that ask individuals to answer a series of questions about their characteristic behavior.
Striving for superiority
According to Adler, the universal drive to adapt, improve oneself, and master life's challenges.
According to Freud, the moral component of personality that incorporates social standards about what represents right and wrong.
According to Freud, thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence on behavior.