Edu Psy Test 1 Ch. 3

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Aggressive behavior.

Action intentionally taken to hurt another, either physically or psychologically.

Attachment.

A strong, affectionate bond formed between a child and another individual (e.g., a parent); usually formed early in the child's life.

Authoritative parenting.

A parenting style characterized by emotional warmth, high expectations and standards for behavior, consistent enforcement of rules, explanations of the reasons behind these rules, and the inclusion of children in decision making.

Clique.

Moderately stable friendship group of perhaps three to ten members.

Conventional morality.

Acceptance of society's conventions regarding right and wrong; behaving to please others or to live up to society's expectations for appropriate behavior.

Crowd.

A large, loose-knit social group that shares common interests and attitudes.

Culture.

Behaviors and belief systems of a long-standing social group.

Culture shock.

A sense of confusion that occurs when a student encounters a culture with very different expectations for behavior than the expectations with which the student has been raised.

Distributive justice.

Beliefs about what constitutes people's fair share of a commodity.

Empathy.

Experiencing the same feelings as someone in unfortunate circumstances.

Ethnic identity.

Awareness of one's membership in a particular ethnic or cultural group, and willingness to adopt certain behaviors characteristic of that group.

Gang.

A cohesive social group characterized by initiation rites, distinctive colors and symbols, territorial orientation, and feuds with rival groups.

Guilt.

The feeling of discomfort that individuals experience when they know that they have caused someone else pain or distress.

Hostile attributional bias.

A tendency to interpret others' behaviors (especially ambiguous ones) as reflecting hostile or aggressive intentions.

Identity.

A self-constructed definition of who a person thinks he or she is and what things are important in life.

Imaginary audience.

The belief that one is the center of attention in any social situation.

Induction.

A method for encouraging moral development in which one explains why a certain behavior is unacceptable, often with a focus on the pain or distress that someone has caused another.

Moral dilemma.

A situation in which there is no clear-cut answer regarding the morally correct thing to do.

Morality

One's general standards about right and wrong.

Moral transgression.

Action that causes harm or infringes on the needs and rights of others.

Neglected students.

Students whom peers rarely select as people they would either really like or really not like to do something with.

Peer pressure.

A phenomenon whereby a student's peers strongly encourage some behaviors and discourage others.

Personal fable.

The belief that one is completely unlike anyone else and so cannot be understood by other individuals.

Perspective taking.

The ability to look at a situation from someone's else viewpoint.

Physical aggression.

Action that can potentially cause bodily injury.

Popular students.

Students whom many peers like and perceive to be kind and trustworthy.

Postconventional morality.

Behaving in accordance with one's own, self-developed, abstract principles regarding right and wrong.

Preconventional morality.

A lack of internalized standards about right and wrong; making decisions based on what is best for oneself, without regard for others' needs and feelings.

Proactive aggression.

Deliberate aggression against another as a means of obtaining a desired goal.

Prosocial behavior.

Behavior directed toward promoting the well-being of someone else.

Reactive aggression.

An aggressive response to frustration or provocation.

Relational aggression.

Action that can adversely affect interpersonal relationships.

Rejected students.

Students whom many peers identify as being undesirable social partners.

Students whom many peers identify as being undesirable social partners.

Students whom many peers identify as being undesirable social partners.

Students whom many peers identify as being undesirable social partners.

Perceptions, beliefs, judgments, and feelings about oneself (includes self-concept and self-esteem).

Shame.

A feeling of embarrassment or humiliation that children feel after failing to meet the standards for moral behavior that adults have set.

Social cognition.

Considering how other people are likely to think, act, and react.

Social information processing.

Mental processes involved in understanding and responding to social events.

Socialization.

The process of molding a child's behavior to fit the norms and roles of the child's society.

Social skills.

Behaviors that enable a person to interact effectively with others.

Subculture

A group that resists the ways of the dominant culture and adopts its own norms for behavior.

Sympathy.

A feeling of sorrow or concern for another person's problems or distress.

Theory of mind.

Understanding of one's own and other people's mental and psychological states (thoughts, feelings, etc.).

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