Biology I - Final Exam Review - Semester 1

155 terms by ldryer Plus

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Know the 4 steps to the scientific method in the correct order

Step One: Make observations - look at common trends or patterns.
Step Two: Form a hypothesis - make an educated guess about how or why things happen.
Step Three: Do analysis - decide how to test your hypothesis and collect the results.
Step Four: Form a conclusion - look at your results and decide whether your hypothesis was correct.

Be able to label the parts of a microscope

...

Know the 10 characteristics of life

Move
Grow
Reproduce
Come from similar preexisting life
Have similar chemical makeup
Made of cells
Show irritability
Require energy
Highly organized
Face death

Know why only one variable should be used in an experiment

If more than one variable is used, it will not be known which variable actually caused the change in the experiment.

Experimental group

The group that is exposed to the variable in an experiment.

Controlled experiment

An ideal scientific experiment.

Control group

The group that is not exposed to the variable in experiments.

Biology

The study of life.

Hypothesis

An educated guess.

Unicellular

A one-celled organism.

Multicellular

An organism made up of many cells.

Locomotion

Movement from one place to another through the environment

Assimilation

The putting together of the parts that make up living things.

Irritability

The ability to respond to stimuli.

Variations

Noticeable and unnoticeable differences in living things.

Three subatomic particles and their charges

Protons - positive
Neutrons - no/neutral charge
Electrons - negative charge

Three states of matter

Solid
Liquid
Gas

4 Major Elements of Life & Symbols

Oxygen (O)
Hydrogen (H)
Nitrogen (N)
Carbon (C)

Ionic bond

When atoms give or take electrons

Covalent bond

When two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons

Kinetic energy

Energy in motion

Potential energy

Energy that is stored up

Energy

The ability to do work

Elements

Pure substances that are made up entirely of one type of atom.

Matter

Anything that takes up space and has mass.

Atom

Smallest particle of an element that still has all the properties of that element

Positive ions

The name given to atoms that lose electrons

Negative ions

The name given to atoms that gain electrons

Solute

Substance that is dissolved in a solution

Solvent

Substance that does the dissolving in a solution

Diffusion

Movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration until equilibrium is reached

Osmosis

Movement of a solvent through a semi-permeable membrane

Compound

Substances made up of two or more elements in definite proportions

Semi-permeable membrane

Allows some ions or molecules to pass through and others not too

Two major nucleic acids

DNA and RNA

Four Major Organic Compounds

Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic acids

3 components of a nucleotide

Sugar, Phosphate, Nitrogenous base

4 DNA bases and how they are paired

Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, Guanine
Adenine & Thymine pair together
Cytosine & Guanine pair together

Protein

Organic compound made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur.

Carbohydrates

Organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen

Lipids

A group of organic substances that are slightly soluble in water but very soluble in organic solvents like alcohol and ether; a very slow energy source.

Nucleic acids

The hereditary material of life.

Unsaturated

When there are double bonds between carbons in a fatty acid molecule.

Saturated

When each of the carbon atoms in a fatty acid molecule has two hydrogen atoms attached to it.

Amino acids

The basic building blocks of proteins.

Hydrolysis

The breaking down of a large molecule by adding water.

Dehydration synthesis

The process of combining molecules and in that process, a water molecule is given off.

Peptide bond

The type of bond that forms in between amino acids and keeps them together.

Cytology

The study of cells

3 parts of the Cell Theory

1. All living things are made of cells
2. Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living things
3. Cells come from the reproduction of pre-existing cells.

Centrioles

Bundles of microtubules that appear during cell division to form the spindle

Chromatin

Mass of spread out DNA

Cell wall

Rigid outside covering that supports and protects the cell

Cell membrane

Controls what enters and leaves the cell

Cilia

Short, hairlike extensions that move small particles away from the cell surface

Cristae

The inner membrane of the mitochondria that increases surface area for chemical reactions

Cytoplasm

Jelly-like (watery) substance that is enclosed by the cell membrane and contains all the organelles

Cytoskeleton

Internal cell structures that help the cell maintain its shape and help organelles move around

ER

Endoplasmic reticulum; a network of hollow membrane tubules that make and transport cell products

Flagella

Long, hairlike extensions that help certain cells move

Golgi body

Stacks of flattened sacs that function to package, sort, process, and send out compounds in the cell

Lysosome

Contains digestive enzymes that break down food, bacteria, and worn out cell parts

Mitochondria

Powerhouse of the cell that creates cell energy

Nuclear membrane

Covering of the nucleus

Nucleus

Control center of the cell

Nucleolus

Functions to make ribosomes

Ribosomes

Function as the protein factories and are made up of lots of RNA

Vacuoles

Fluid-filled sacs for storage of food, water, and wastes

Prokaryote

Cell that lacks a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles

Eukaryote

Cell that has a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles

Active transport

Movement of molecules across membranes that requires energy from the cell

Passive transport

Movement of molecules across membranes that does not require energy from the cell to perform

Facilitated diffusion

A type of transport that does not require cell energy but does require a protein carrier to help move molecules across cell membranes

Homeostasis

Steady state; the body's way of maintaining the internal environment when the external environment is always changing

Exocytosis

The process of large particles leaving the cell

Endocytosis

The process of bringing food/liquid into the cell

Pinocytosis

The process of a cell drinking large particles

Phagocytosis

The process of a cell eating large particles

Concentration gradient

Difference between the numbers of one type of molecule in two adjacent areas

Photosynthesis Equation (know in words only)

Carbon dioxide plus water yields sugar (glucose) plus oxygen

What three substances makes up ATP?

One Sugar ribose, One Adenine molecule, Three phosphates

Where is energy stored in an ATP?

Between the phosphate molecules

When is energy released from ATP?

When a phosphate breaks off the ATP

What is ATP?

A small, usable unit of energy

Heterotroph

An organism that cannot make its own food but relies on other organisms for their energy

Autotroph

An organism that is capable of capturing light energy and making their own food

Grana

A stack of thylakoids

Photosystems

Clusters of pigment that absorb light energy from the sun.

Stroma

Area outside of the thylakoids

Thylakoid

Sac-like main structures in the chloroplast where photosynthesis takes place

Chlorophyll

A green colored pigment that is the primary catalyst of photosynthesis

Photosynthesis

The process where green plants and algae absorb the sun's energy and convert it into stored chemical energy

Equation for Cell Respiration (in words only)

Oxygen plus sugar (glucose) yields carbon dioxide plus water

Cell respiration

The breaking down of glucose into usable cellular energy and ATP

Aerobic

Requires oxygen

Anaerobic

Does not require oxygen

Lactic Acid Fermentation

The process of combining pyruvic acid and NADH to form lactic acid and NAD+

Alcoholic Fermentation

The process of combining pyruvic acid and NADH to form NAD+, carbon dioxide, and alcohol

Be able to find the mRNA complement from a given DNA strand. Be able to find the complementary tRNA from a mRNA strand. Be able to find the amino acid from the chart (see next slide).

Example:
DNA = TAC CAT GGT
*mRNA = AUG GUA CCA
tRNA = UAC CAU GGU
Amino acid sequence (*Use mRNA) = Methionine, Valine, Proline

Be able to find the correct amino acid from the chart

How to read the chart:
Use the codon (from mRNA) -- Example is AGC
The first letter is 'A'...start in the middle of the chart and find the large letter 'A'.
The second letter is 'G'...staying in the 'A' section, find the 'G' in the next layer of letters.
The third letter is 'C'...staying in the 'A' 'G' sections, find the 'C' in the outermost circle of letters.
You should find that the amino acid is Serine.

Protein synthesis

The process of making a polypeptide chain (protein)

mRNA

Carries the genetic information (code) from the DNA to the ribosomes

rRNA

Helps make up the ribosomes

tRNA

Brings amino acids to the ribosomes to create proteins

Codon

The three letter unit on a mRNA

Anticodon

The tRNA 3-letter word that is complementary to the mRNA codon

Transcription

Makes a mRNA molecule that is complementary to a part of a DNA molecule

Translation

Takes the mRNA and reads it so that a chain of amino acids is formed (which will eventually turn into a protein)

Exons

Important information that helps make a protein

Introns

Sections of non-informational segments that do not code for any protein information

-cellular

celled

multi-

many

a-

without

bio-

life

uni-

one

-logy

study of

endo-

within

semi-

half

equi-

equal

-librium

balance

exo-

outside of

-permeable

to pass through

sucr-

sugar

di-

two

-ose

sugar

fruct-

fruit

galact-

milk

mono-

one

-saccharide

sugar

lact-

milk

-phobic

fear of

poly-

many

hydra-

water

-philic

love of

malt-

malt

-synthesis

to put together

-lysis

a loosening

de-

loss

chloro-

green

cyto-

cell

homeo-

same

iso-

equal

phago-

to eat

-stasis

standstill

aero-

air

auto-

self

-troph

nourishment

hetero-

other

an-

without

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