Know the 4 steps to the scientific method in the correct order
Step One: Make observations - look at common trends or patterns.
Step Two: Form a hypothesis - make an educated guess about how or why things happen.
Step Three: Do analysis - decide how to test your hypothesis and collect the results.
Step Four: Form a conclusion - look at your results and decide whether your hypothesis was correct.
Be able to label the parts of a microscope
Know the 10 characteristics of life
Come from similar preexisting life
Have similar chemical makeup
Made of cells
Know why only one variable should be used in an experiment
If more than one variable is used, it will not be known which variable actually caused the change in the experiment.
The group that is exposed to the variable in an experiment.
An ideal scientific experiment.
The group that is not exposed to the variable in experiments.
The study of life.
An educated guess.
A one-celled organism.
An organism made up of many cells.
Movement from one place to another through the environment
The putting together of the parts that make up living things.
The ability to respond to stimuli.
Noticeable and unnoticeable differences in living things.
Three subatomic particles and their charges
Protons - positive
Neutrons - no/neutral charge
Electrons - negative charge
Three states of matter
4 Major Elements of Life & Symbols
When atoms give or take electrons
When two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons
Energy in motion
Energy that is stored up
The ability to do work
Pure substances that are made up entirely of one type of atom.
Anything that takes up space and has mass.
Smallest particle of an element that still has all the properties of that element
The name given to atoms that lose electrons
The name given to atoms that gain electrons
Substance that is dissolved in a solution
Substance that does the dissolving in a solution
Movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration until equilibrium is reached
Movement of a solvent through a semi-permeable membrane
Substances made up of two or more elements in definite proportions
Allows some ions or molecules to pass through and others not too
Two major nucleic acids
DNA and RNA
Four Major Organic Compounds
Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic acids
3 components of a nucleotide
Sugar, Phosphate, Nitrogenous base
4 DNA bases and how they are paired
Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, Guanine
Adenine & Thymine pair together
Cytosine & Guanine pair together
Organic compound made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur.
Organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
A group of organic substances that are slightly soluble in water but very soluble in organic solvents like alcohol and ether; a very slow energy source.
The hereditary material of life.
When there are double bonds between carbons in a fatty acid molecule.
When each of the carbon atoms in a fatty acid molecule has two hydrogen atoms attached to it.
The basic building blocks of proteins.
The breaking down of a large molecule by adding water.
The process of combining molecules and in that process, a water molecule is given off.
The type of bond that forms in between amino acids and keeps them together.
The study of cells
3 parts of the Cell Theory
1. All living things are made of cells
2. Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living things
3. Cells come from the reproduction of pre-existing cells.
Bundles of microtubules that appear during cell division to form the spindle
Mass of spread out DNA
Rigid outside covering that supports and protects the cell
Controls what enters and leaves the cell
Short, hairlike extensions that move small particles away from the cell surface
The inner membrane of the mitochondria that increases surface area for chemical reactions
Jelly-like (watery) substance that is enclosed by the cell membrane and contains all the organelles
Internal cell structures that help the cell maintain its shape and help organelles move around
Endoplasmic reticulum; a network of hollow membrane tubules that make and transport cell products
Long, hairlike extensions that help certain cells move
Stacks of flattened sacs that function to package, sort, process, and send out compounds in the cell
Contains digestive enzymes that break down food, bacteria, and worn out cell parts
Powerhouse of the cell that creates cell energy
Covering of the nucleus
Control center of the cell
Functions to make ribosomes
Function as the protein factories and are made up of lots of RNA
Fluid-filled sacs for storage of food, water, and wastes
Cell that lacks a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles
Cell that has a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles
Movement of molecules across membranes that requires energy from the cell
Movement of molecules across membranes that does not require energy from the cell to perform
A type of transport that does not require cell energy but does require a protein carrier to help move molecules across cell membranes
Steady state; the body's way of maintaining the internal environment when the external environment is always changing
The process of large particles leaving the cell
The process of bringing food/liquid into the cell
The process of a cell drinking large particles
The process of a cell eating large particles
Difference between the numbers of one type of molecule in two adjacent areas
Photosynthesis Equation (know in words only)
Carbon dioxide plus water yields sugar (glucose) plus oxygen
What three substances makes up ATP?
One Sugar ribose, One Adenine molecule, Three phosphates
Where is energy stored in an ATP?
Between the phosphate molecules
When is energy released from ATP?
When a phosphate breaks off the ATP
What is ATP?
A small, usable unit of energy
An organism that cannot make its own food but relies on other organisms for their energy
An organism that is capable of capturing light energy and making their own food
A stack of thylakoids
Clusters of pigment that absorb light energy from the sun.
Area outside of the thylakoids
Sac-like main structures in the chloroplast where photosynthesis takes place
A green colored pigment that is the primary catalyst of photosynthesis
The process where green plants and algae absorb the sun's energy and convert it into stored chemical energy
Equation for Cell Respiration (in words only)
Oxygen plus sugar (glucose) yields carbon dioxide plus water
The breaking down of glucose into usable cellular energy and ATP
Does not require oxygen
Lactic Acid Fermentation
The process of combining pyruvic acid and NADH to form lactic acid and NAD+
The process of combining pyruvic acid and NADH to form NAD+, carbon dioxide, and alcohol
Be able to find the mRNA complement from a given DNA strand. Be able to find the complementary tRNA from a mRNA strand. Be able to find the amino acid from the chart (see next slide).
DNA = TAC CAT GGT
*mRNA = AUG GUA CCA
tRNA = UAC CAU GGU
Amino acid sequence (*Use mRNA) = Methionine, Valine, Proline
Be able to find the correct amino acid from the chart
How to read the chart:
Use the codon (from mRNA) -- Example is AGC
The first letter is 'A'...start in the middle of the chart and find the large letter 'A'.
The second letter is 'G'...staying in the 'A' section, find the 'G' in the next layer of letters.
The third letter is 'C'...staying in the 'A' 'G' sections, find the 'C' in the outermost circle of letters.
You should find that the amino acid is Serine.
The process of making a polypeptide chain (protein)
Carries the genetic information (code) from the DNA to the ribosomes
Helps make up the ribosomes
Brings amino acids to the ribosomes to create proteins
The three letter unit on a mRNA
The tRNA 3-letter word that is complementary to the mRNA codon
Makes a mRNA molecule that is complementary to a part of a DNA molecule
Takes the mRNA and reads it so that a chain of amino acids is formed (which will eventually turn into a protein)
Important information that helps make a protein
Sections of non-informational segments that do not code for any protein information
to pass through
to put together
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