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Freedmans Bureau

Passed on March 3, 1865, by Congress to aid former slaves through education, health care, and employment, it became a key agency during Reconstruction, assisting freedmen in the South.

Wade-Davis Bill

1864 Proposed far more demanding and stringent terms for reconstruction; required 50% of the voters of a state to take the loyalty oath and permitted only non-confederates to vote for a new state constitution; Lincoln refused to sign the bill, pocket vetoing it after Congress adjourned.

Black Codes

Southern laws designed to restrict the rights of the newly freed black slaves

Alexander Stephens

He was the vice-president of the Confederacy until 1865 when it was defeated and destroyed by the Union. Like the other leaders of the Confederacy, he was under indictment for treason. Claimed a seat in Congress during reconstruction under Johnson. Congress denied him and other Confederates seats in Congress.

Civil Rights Bill

A bill passed by Congress in March 1866 as a measure against the Black Codes to reinforce black rights to citizenship. It was vetoed by Johnson and was later passed as the 14th Amendment.

Fourteenth Amendment

Constitutional amendment giving full rights of citizenship to all people born or naturalized in the United States, except for American Indians; reduced representation of states in Congress and Electoral College if they denied blacks the ballot; disqualified Confederates who had sworn allegiance to federal office before the Civil War; guaranteed the federal debt, but not the Confederate debt

Andrew Johnson

A Southerner form Tennessee, as V.P. when Lincoln was killed, he became president. He opposed radical Republicans who passed Reconstruction Acts over his veto. The first U.S. president to be impeached, he survived the Senate removal by only one vote. He was a very weak president.

Redeemers

Largely former slave owners who were the bitterest opponents of the Republican program in the South. Staged a major counterrevolution to "redeem" the south by taking back southern state governments. Their foundation rested on the idea of racism and white supremacy. Redeemer governments waged and agressive assault on African Americans.

Fifteenth Amendment

a constitutional amendment that gave African American men the right to vote

Ex parte Milligan

Supreme Court decided that the suspension of habeas corpus (right to see a judge) was unconstitutional because civilian courts were still operating, and the Constitution of the United States (according to the Court) only provided for suspension of habeas corpus if these courts are actually forced closed. In essence, the court ruled that military tribunals could not try civilians in areas where civil courts were open, even during wartime.

Thaddeus Stevens

Man behind the 14th Amendment, which ends slavery. Stevens and President Johnson were absolutely opposed to each other. Known as a Radical Republican who believed in harsh punishments for the South. Leader of the radical Republicans in Congress.

Reconstruction Act

It divided the South into 5 military districts, each commanded by a union general and policed by Union soldiers. It also required that states wishing to be re-admitted into the Union had to ratify the 14th Amendment, and that states' constitutions had to allow former adult male slaves to vote.

scalawags

A derogatory name for southern whites who supported Republican policy throughout Reconstruction

carpetbaggers

A northerner who went to the South immediately after the Civil War; especially one who tried to gain political advantage or other advantages from the disorganized situation in southern states

Ku Klux Klan

founded in the 1860s in the south; meant to control and unacknowledge the rights of newly freed slaves through threats and violence; other targets: Catholics, Jews, immigrants and others thought to be un-American

Force Acts

These acts were passed in 1870 and 1871. They were created to put a stop to the torture and harassment of blacks by whites, especially by hate groups such as the Ku Klux Klan. These acts gave power to the government to use its forces to physically end the problems.

Tenure of Office Act

1866 - enacted by radical congress - forbade president from removing civil officers without senatorial consent - was to prevent Johnson from removing Edwin M Stanton, a radical republican, from his cabinet

Seward's Folly

Secretary of State William Seward's negotiation of the purchase of Alaska from Russia in 1867. At the time everyone thought this was a mistake to buy Alaska the "ice box" but it turned out to be the biggest bargain for 7.2 million since the Louisiana purchase

W.E.B. Dubois

1st black to earn Ph.D. from Harvard, encouraged blacks to resist systems of segregation and discrimination, helped create NAACP in 1910

Thomas Nast

Political cartoonist who's work exposed the abuses of the Tweed ring, criticized the South's attempts to impede Reconstruction, and lampooned labor unions. Created the animal symbols of the Democratic and republican parties.

Booker T. Washington

Prominent black American, born into slavery, who believed that racism would end once blacks acquired useful labor skills and proved their economic value to society, was head of the Tuskegee Institute in 1881. His book "Up from Slavery." Supported segregation and demanded that African American better themselves individually to achieve equality.

Oliver O. Howard

Head of the Freedmen's Bureau which was intended to be a kind of primitive welfare agency for free blacks. Later founded and served as President of Howard University in Washington D.C.

sharecropping

a system used on southern farms after the civil war in which farmers (mostly former slaves and poor whites) worked land owned by someone else (former masters) in return for a small portion of the crops. 'half and half'

Jim Fisk

worked with Jay Gould - wanted to corner the US gold market and convince the Treasury not to release gold so they could have control over the gold market - almost worked- showed corruption of Grant presidency - lead to Black Friday

Jay Gould

Often regarded as the most unethical of the Robber Barons, he was involved with Tammany Hall and Boss Tweed early in his career. After damaging his reputation in a gold speculation that instigated the panic of Black Friday in 1869 with Jim Fisk, he went on to gain control of western railroads and by 1882 had controlling interest in 15% of the country's tracks. Although mistrusted by many of his contemporaries, he was recognized as a skilled businessman.

Black Friday

Name for September 24, 1869, when Fisk and Gould bid the price of gold absurdly high, until Grant released gold from the Treasury.

bloody shirt

Republican campaign tactic that blamed the Democrats for the Civil War; it was used successfully in campaigns from 1868 to 1876 to keep Democrats out of public office, especially the presidency.

Tweed Ring

A group of people in New York City who worked with and for Burly "Boss" Tweed. He was a crooked politician and money maker. The ring supported all of his deeds. The New York Times finally found evidence to jail Tweed. Without Tweed the ring did not last. These people, the "Bosses" of the political machines, were very common in America for that time. It was the corrupt part of Tammany Hall in New York City, that Samuel J. Tilden, the reform governor of New York had been instrumental in overthrowing.

Samuel Tilden

Democratic candidate for the U.S. presidency in the disputed election of 1876, the most controversial American election of the 19th century. A political reformer, he was a Bourbon Democrat who worked closely with the New York City business community, led the fight against the corruption of Tammany Hall, and fought to keep taxes low

Credit Mobilier

1872, This was a fraudulent construction company created to take the profits of the Union Pacific Railroad. Using govn't funds for the railroad, the Union Pacific directors gave padded construction contracts to Congress members

Whiskey Ring

During the Grant administration, a group of officials were importing whiskey and using their offices to avoid paying the taxes on it, cheating the treasury out of millions of dollars; Grant's cabinet members siphoned tax money from alcohol into their own bank accounts

Horace Greeley

An American newspaper editor and founder of the Republican party. His New York Tribune was America's most influential newspaper 1840-1870. Greeley used it to promote the Whig and Republican parties, as well as antislavery and a host of reforms. He was the presidential nominee for the Liberal Republicans and the Democrats for the 1872 election; lost to Grant and died a few weeks after his defeat.

Liberal Republican Party

Reform party devoted to rebuilding the Republican party away from Grant, nominating Horace Greeley in 1872. Formed in response to disgust of the political corruption in Washington and of military Reconstruction

Crime of 73

Through the coinage act of 1873, the US ended the minting of silver dollars and placed the country on the gold standard. This was attacked by those who supported an inflationary monetary policy, particularly farmers and those who believed in the unlimited coinage of silver.

Contraction

Policy which decreased the amount of money per capital in circulation between 1870 and 1880

Grand Army of the Republic (GAR)

a fraternal organization composed of veterans of the Union Army who had served in the American Civil War

Gilded Age

A name for the late 1800s, coined by Mark Twain to describe the tremendous increase in wealth caused by the industrial age and the ostentatious lifestyles it allowed the very rich. The great industrial success of the U.S. and the fabulous lifestyles of the wealthy hid the many social problems of the time, including a high poverty rate, a high crime rate, and corruption in the government.

Stalwart Faction

Republican party faction led by Senator Roscoe Conkling that opposed all attempts at civil-service reform; and swapped civil service jobs for votes

Half-Breed Faction

Republican faction led by James G. Blaine, who toyed with idea of civil service reform but existed mainly to disagree with "Stalwart" faction over who should have power to hand out spoils.

Roscoe Conkling

A politician from New York who served both as a member of the United States House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate. He was the leader of the Stalwart faction of the Republican Party. Was highly against civil service reforms, it was thought that the killing of Garfield was done in Conkling's behest.

James G. Blaine

a U.S. Representative, Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, U.S. Senator from Maine, two-time United States Secretary of State, and champion of the Half-Breeds. He was a dominant Republican leader of the post Civil War period, obtaining the 1884 Republican nomination, but lost to Democrat Grover Cleveland

Greenback Labor Party

Political party devoted to improving the lives of laborers and raising inflation, reaching its high point in 1878 when it polled over a million votes and elected fourteen members of Congress.

Rutherford B Hayes

19th President, ended Reconstruction by removing federal troops; part of the disputed and corrupt Tilden/Hayes election that resulted in the Compromise of 1877

Compromise of 1877

Unwritten deal that settled the 1876 presidential election contest between Rutherford Hayes (Rep) and Samuel Tilden (Dem.) Hayes was awarded the presidency in exchange for the permanent removal of federal troops from the South. , Ended Reconstruction. Republicans promise 1) Remove military from South, 2) Appoint Democrat to cabinet (David Key postmaster general), 3) Federal money for railroad construction and levees on Mississippi river

crop-lien system

Similar to sharecropping — merchants loan food and supplies to farmers so they can farm; farmers have to pay them back with some of their crops. When harvests were bad, farmers got deeper and deeper in debt to merchants. , System allowed farmers to get more credit. They used harvested crops to pay back their loans.

Jim Crow Laws

The system of racial segregation in the South that was created in the late nineteenth century following the end of slavery and Reconstruction. Jim Crow laws written in the 1880s and 1890s mandated segregation in public facilities.

Plessy vs Ferguson

(1896) The Court ruled that segregation was not discriminatory (did not violate black civil rights under the Fourteenth Amendemnt) provided that blacks received accommodations equal to those of whites.

soft/hard money

Hard' money is contributed directly to a candidate. It is regulated by law and monitored by the Federal Election Commission. Individuals can give no more than $1,000 to a specific candidate in a given year.

'Soft' money is contributed to the Republican and Democratic National Committees, and to the party committees in each state. 'Soft' contributions are not as heavily regulated. The parties may use such money to promote candidates or finance party projects, such as political conventions.

Chinese Exclusion Act

Passed in 1882; banned Chinese immigration in US for a total of 40 years because the United States thought of them as a threat. Denied any additional Chinese laborers to enter the country while allowing students and merchants to immigrate. Caused Chinese population in America to decrease.

Winfield Hancock

The democratic candidate for president in 1880 and Civil War hero. He nearly took the national election, as Garfield failed to get a majority, but lost overwhelmingly in the Electoral College

James A Garfield

James Garfield was elected to presidency in 1880. He barely won the popular vote but won by a huge margin in the electoral college. He was assassinated so Stalwarts could be in power in the government. This brought about reforms in the spoils systems.

Chester A Arthur

He was the Vice President of James A. Garfield. After President Garfield was assassinated, September of 1881, Arthur assumed the position. He was chosen to run as Vice President, primarily, to gain the Stalwart's vote. When Garfield was assassinated, Arthur was left in charge of the United States with no apparent qualifications. He, in turn, surprised the public with his unexpected vigor in prosecuting certain post office frauds and wouldn't help the Conklingite cronies when they came looking for favors. He was also in favor of civil service reform.

Pendleton Act

Passed in 1883, an Act that created a federal civil service so that hiring and promotion would be based on merit rather than patronage, and stated that federal employees could not be required to contribute to campaign funds nor be fired for political reasons

Mugwumps

Republican political activists who supported Democratic candidate Grover Cleveland in the United States presidential election of 1884. They switched parties because they rejected the financial corruption associated with Republican candidate, James Blaine.

Grover Cleveland

22nd and 24th president, Democrat, Honest and hardworking, fought corruption, vetoed hundreds of wasteful bills, achieved the Interstate Commerce Commission and civil service reform, violent suppression of strikes

Benjamin Harrison

The 23rd President of the United States, serving one term from 1889 to 1893. He had previously served as a senator from Indiana. His administration is best known for a series of legislation including the McKinley Tariff and federal spending that reached one billion dollars. Democrats attacked the "Billion Dollar Congress" and defeated the GOP in the 1890 mid-term elections, as well as defeating Harrison's bid for reelection in 1892. He is to date the only president from Indiana.

McKinley Tariff Act

Tariff made to protect Republican industrialists from foreign competition. This raised tariffs to an all time high during peacetime, so high that it caused a popular backlash which cost the Republicans votes.

pork-barrel bills

A derogatory term referring to appropriation of government spending for localized projects secured solely or primarily to bring money to a representative's district.

William McKinley

The twenty-fifth President of the United States, and the last veteran of the Civil War to be elected. By the 1880s, this Ohio native was a nationally known Republican leader; his signature issue was high tariffs on imports as a formula for prosperity, as typified by his McKinley Tariff of 1890. As the Republican candidate in the 1896 presidential election, he upheld the gold standard, and promoted pluralism among ethnic groups.

People's Party

Out of the Farmer's Alliance emerged a new political party in the 1890's. Political program: graduated income tax, nationalize the railroads, telephone and telegraph, direct election of US senators, one-term limit on presidency, create a federal "sub-treasury" (federal loans to farmers to store grain until prices went up), free and unlimited coinage of silver, shorter work day, and immigration restriction.

James B Weaver

He was the Populist candidate for president in the election of 1892; received only 8.2% of the vote. He was from the West.

Populism

Farm-based movement of the late 1800s that arose mainly in the area from Texas to the Dakotas and grew into a joint effort between farmer and labor groups against big business and machine-based politics. The movement became a third party in the election of 1892.

Tom Watson

Radical Populist leader whose early success turned sour, and who then became a vicious racist.

grandfather clause

A clause in registration laws allowing people who do not meet registration requirements to vote if they or their ancestors had voted before 1860; mainly aimed towards slaves-who obviously wouldn't be able to vote because slavery still existed in 1860

Sherman Silver Purchase Act

In 1890, an act was passed so that the treasury would buy 4.5 million ounces of silver monthly and pay those who mined it in notes that were redeemable in either gold or silver. This law doubled the amount of silver that could be purchased under the Bland-Allison Law of 1878.

J.P. Morgan

Investment banker whose firm J. Pierpont Morgan and Company, under various names, channeled European capital into America and grew into a financial power; he also controlled one-sixth of the nation's railway system, and consolidated the steel industry with the United States Steel Corporation, the first billion-dollar corporation. -- helped save the economy and gold reserve in 1895

William Jennings Bryan

This Democratic candidate ran for president most famously in 1896 (and again in 1900). His goal of "free silver" (unlimited coinage of silver) won him the support of the Populist Party. Though a gifted orator, he lost the election to Republican William McKinley. He ran again for president and lost in 1900. Later he opposed America's imperialist actions, and in the 1920s, he made his mark as a leader of the fundamentalist cause and prosecuting attorney in the Scopes Monkey Trial.

Bland-Allison Act

an 1878 law passed over the veto of President Rutherford B. Hayes requiring the U.S. treasury to buy a certain amount of silver and put it into circulation as silver dollars. The goal was to subsidize the silver industry in the Mountain states and inflate prices.

Adlai E Stevenson

VP to Cleveland; took over while Cleveland was having super-secret mouth surgery; a "soft money" supporter

Jay Cooke

A New York financier who was interested in the OSN Railroads. When he acquired the charter of the North Pacific, he persuaded Congress to enlarge the land grants 60 miles on each side of the railroad, and he allowed timber companies to sell of these lands.His bankruptcy caused a national depression.

New South

The term has been used with different applications in mind. The original use of the term "New South" was an attempt to describe the rise of a South after the Civil War which would no longer be dependent on now-outlawed slave labor or predominantly upon the raising of cotton, but rather a South which was also industrialized and part of a modern national economy

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