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Which of the following organisms is using sulfur as a source of energy?

Thiobacillus: H2S → S0

Which of the following is NOT a symbiotic pair of organisms?

Sulfur and Thiobacillus

Which of the following pairs is mismatched?

Bacillus - hard cheese

In which of the following animals would you expect to find a specialized organ that holds cellulose-degrading bacteria and fungi?

Termite

Adding untreated sewage to a freshwater lake would cause the biochemical oxygen demand to

Increase

6H2S + 6CO2 6S0 + glucose

Takes place under anaerobic conditions.

Nitrogen fixation

Requires anaerobic conditions.

Sludge digestion

Takes place under anaerobic conditions.

Primary sewage treatment

The amount of oxygen doesn't make any difference.

Which of the following pairs is mismatched?

Algae - citric acid

Which reaction makes wine less acidic?

Malic acid → Lactic acid

Which of the following is the reason canning preserves foods?

Anaerobic environment and heat

Which of the following is the reason aseptic packaging preserves foods?

Heat

Which of the following is the reason radiation preserves foods?

Lethal mutations

You are growing Bacillus subtilis in a bioreactor and notice that the growth rate has slowed and the pH has decreased. You suspect the bacteria are

Fermenting

Assume that you bought a semisoft cheese, such as blue cheese, and put it into your refrigerator. Three weeks later, you slice the cheese and notice the center is now liquid because

Fungal enzymes have digested the curd.

The following steps are required for making cheese. Which is the second step?

Inoculate with lactic acid bacteria

Which of the following is true of a commensal bacterium?

May be an opportunistic pathogen

Which of the following statements is true?

Symbiosis refers to different organisms living together.

A nosocomial infection is

Acquired during the course of hospitalization

The major significance of Koch's work was that

Microorganisms cause disease.

Koch's postulates don't apply to all diseases because

Not all diseases are caused by microorganisms.

The most frequently used portal of entry for pathogens is the

Mucous membranes of the respiratory tract.

Which of the following diseases is NOT usually contracted by the respiratory route?

Infectious hepatitis

Most pathogens that gain access through the skin

Enter through hair follicles and sweat ducts.

Which of the following does NOT contribute to a pathogen's invasiveness?

Toxins

Which of the following statements is false?

Coagulase destroys blood clots.

Which of the following best defines innate immunity?

The body's defenses against any kind of pathogen

Which of the following is NOT a physical factor protecting the skin and mucous membranes from infection?

Lysozyme

The function of the "ciliary escalator" is to

Remove microorganisms from the lower respiratory tract.

Which of the following exhibits the highest phagocytic activity?

Neutrophils

TLRs attach to all of the following EXCEPT

AMPs

What type of immunity results from vaccination?

Artificially acquired active immunity

What type of immunity results from transfer of antibodies from one individual to a susceptible individual by means of injection?

Artificially acquired passive immunity

What type of immunity results from recovery from mumps?

Naturally acquired active immunity

A human's resistance to canine distemper is an example of

Innate immunity

Newborns' immunity due to the transfer of antibodies across the placenta is an example of

Naturally acquired passive immunity.

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