Jocob Coxey's army of unemployed who marched on Washington D.C. during the Panic of 1893
A. F. of L.
Organized skilled workers in craft unions in order to advance economic gains
Century of Dishonor
Helen Hunt Jackson's book about the long record of injustice toward the Native Americans.
1884 election...GOP who criticized Blaine and defected to the Democrats.
gov't land grants and cash subsidies help railroad expansion in the last half of the 1800's
Interstate Commerce Act
1887..began gov't regulation of the railroads...gov'ts policy switched from land subsidies to forbidding rebates to favored customers...required publication of rates, established ICC, prohibited rebates, outlawed short haul surchage.
Cleveland elected again...Populists made strong gains in the West
Munn V Illinois
Supreme Court case of state regulation of the railroads
Official US policy involved reservations the allotment of land to individuals
technological advancement in the manufacturing of steel
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
1890...purpose was to attempt to restore business competition....was not immediately successful
Effects of Industrialism
Real wages declined, production increased dramatically, new types of business corporations emerged, immigration increased
not much success in the late 1800's because unionism was the opposite of American individualism
during the Gilded Age...ruthless competitors who cheated investors and exploited workers...late 19th century
Laissez Faire criticism
gov't gave lands to railroads and protected manufacturers with tarrifs
Excluded from US in early 1880's ..first group to be targeted by Congress
Knights of Labor
Welcomed all workers: skilled/unskilled, black/white, male/female
Knights of Labor vs AFL
differed over who sould be a member
Bombing in Chicago in 1886 at a labor rally...skilled workers abandoned the K of L in favor of the A F of L ...people associated unions with violence
Railroad strike...Pres.Cleveland took the side of management..sent troops
Political cartoonist...his target was Boss Tweed
after 1890(more or less)...came from Southern and Easter Europe in the later 1800's ..settled in the big cities of the Northeast and Midwest
Carnegie....Control all aspects of the stell making to increase profits
Reockefeller...a company that buys other businesses in the same industry
Urban Political Machines
assisted immigrants in exchange for their votes, found immigrants jobs, provided legal help and emergency assistance, psychological comfort
one major cause was the exploitation by the railroads of the farmers
headed a ring of politicians that cheated NY City out of $100 million
Pseudo-scientific evidence used by welathy Americans to prove that they deserved their wealthy...natural selection and survival of the fittest
Carnegie's Gospel of Wealth
Carnegie's belief that the wealthy must serve as trustees for their wealth and the public good
free coinage of silver to increase the supply of money in circulation
Jane Addams was the leader of this movement...young, affluent college educated woman provided help for the immigrants
Began merit/tenure system for federal jobs...in response to Garfield's assassination
Booker T Washington's Philosophy
Blacks and Whites could work together without socializing...work hard, acquire property, and prove your worth
Populist/Dem Bryan Vs GOP McKinley...free silver vs gold standard...Bryan had made famous "Cross of Gold" speech
Morrill Land Grant Act
federal land to the states to establish colleges
Sherman Silver Purchase Act
required the gov't to purchase silver
1870's-1880's ...before populists...southern and Great Plains farmers were frustrated by low crop prices
Nez Perce Indian Cheif "I will fight no more forever"
from 1865-1890, most immigrants came from northern western Europe ...after that from southern to eastern Europe
Leader of the American Railway Workers Union...he turned to socialism after the Pullman Strike
formed because they were frustrated by the gov'ts policies toward the farmers..wanted free silver and goc't ownership of the railroads
160 acres of free land from the federal gov't ..you must improve it in 5 years
during the gilded Age it was the primary function of Pres
"Waving the Bloody Shirt"
used by GOP to bring Civil War memories and label the Democrats as disloyal
influence of the West upon the development of the US and democracy
Effects of the "free silver"
increase currency/money supply for higher farm prices..reduce farmer's debt...reduce power of the eastern bankers...expand silver mining...were all favored by the Populists
defended by the GOP because it brought additional revenue to the federal gov't ...was main issue that divided GOP and the Democrats in the Gilded Age
Compromise of 1877
end of Reconstruction...Hayes became Pres and troops left South
Jim Crow Laws
Established seperate, segregated facilities in the south
prevented former slaves (freedmen) from voting
the most devastating factor in their demise was the killing of the buffalo
W. E. B. DuBois
strongly opposed the philosophy of Booker T. Washington..founded the NAACP
Plessy Vs Ferguson
Supreme Court said that "seperate but equal" facilities were constitutional.."legalized" segregation
United States financier who accumulated great wealth from railroad and shipping businesses (1794-1877)
Alexander G. Bell
American inventor of the telephone
Inventor of lightbulb, phonograph and numerous other innovations
Built a steel mill empire; US STEEL
John D. Rockerfeller
often referred to as the richest person in history, this man founded Standard Oil and became a philanthropist who contributed to many worthy projects including but not limited to medicine, scientific research and education.
United States labor leader (born in England) who was president of the American Federation of Labor from 1886 to 1924 (1850-1924)
acquiring control of all the steps required to change raw materials into finished product
term for allying with competitors to monopolize a given market
Men that were known for monopolistic corpurations
railroad which extended from Omaha, Nebraska westward
railroad which extended from sacramento, california eastward
an association formed by farmers in the last 1800s to make life better for farmers by sharing information about crops, prices, and supplies
powerful and wealthy 19th century steel corporation founded by Andrew Carnagie and JP morgan
Gospel of Wealth
People in the world who were destined to become rich and help society
Term that identified southern promoters' belief in the technologically advanced industrial South
A planned strike by the Knights of Labor results in police confrontation and a bomb
American federation of Labor
Federation of craft labor unions lead by Samuel Gompers that arose out of dissatisfaction with the Knights of Labor
Sand Creek Colorado Massacre
Colonel J.M. Chivington's militia massacred some four hundred Indians in cold blood—Indians who had thought they had been promised immunity and Indians who were peaceful and harmless.
Col. JM Chivington
Leader of Army At Sand Creek Massacre
Genral George Custer
Found Gold in Black Hills and forced Sioux out (Little Big Horn)
Little Big Horn
General Custer and his men were wiped out by a coalition of Sioux and Cheyenne Indians led by Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse
A Century of Dishonor
Written by Helen Hunt Jackson, it detailed the injustices made to Native Americans during US expansion
village in South Dakota. In 1890 it was the site of a massacre of Native North Americans in which between 150 and 370 Sioux people were killed, most of them unarmed.
Dawes Severalty Act
Bill that promised Indians tracts of land to farm in order to assimilate them into white culture. The bill was resisted, uneffective, and disastrous to Indian tribes
Refers to the overland transport of cattle by the cowboy over the three month period. Cattle were sold to settlers and Native Americans.
Passed in 1862, it gave 160 acres of public land to any settler who would farm the land for five years. The settler would only have to pay a registration fee of $25.
Fredrick Jackson Turner
Develpoed the Frontier Thesis
A Farmers' organization founded in late 1870s; worked for lower railroad freight rates, lower interest rates, and a change in the governments tight money policy
1894 - nonviolent strike (brought down the railway system in most of the West) at the Pullman Palace Car Co. over wages - Prez. Cleveland shut it down because it was interfering with mail delivery
William Jennings Brown
a democrat running for president supported by the Populists
"Cross of Gold" Speech
An impassioned address by William Jennings Bryan at the 1896 Deomcratic Convention, in which he attacked the "gold bugs" who insisted that U.S. currency be backed only with gold.
Election of 1896
Republican William McKinley defeated Democrat William Jennings Bryan in 1896. Bryan was the nominee of the Democrats, the Populist Party, and the Silver Republicans.Economic issues, including bimetallism, the gold standard, Free Silver, and the tariff, were crucial.
a very large urban complex (usually involving several cities and towns)
English natural scientist who formulated a theory of evolution by natural selection (1809-1882)
Carrie Chapman Catt
Spoke powerfully in favor of suffrage, worked as a school principal and a reporter ., became head of the National American Woman Suffrage, an inspiried speaker and abrilliant organizer. Devised a detailed battle plan for fighting the war of suffrage.
Houses that poor people lived in, located in cities Showed some atrocities of American industrial life.
Brooker T. Washington
Born into slavery, had a love for learning, with this love he started a school in Tuskeegee Alabama, University of Tuskeegee, He was not afraid f hard work.
Prohibited the manufacture, sale, and distribution of alcoholic beverages
the founder of Hull House, which provided English lessons for immigrants, daycares, and child care classes
W.E.B. Du Bois
fought for African American rights. Helped to found Niagra Movement in 1905 to fight for and establish equal rights. This movement later led to the establishment of the NAACP
Settlement house founded by progressive reformer Jane Adams in Chicago in 18889
Morrill Act of 1862
provided a grant of public lands to states for support of education
term for those who were against immigration, anti foreignism
Charlotte Perkins Gilman
She wrote Women and Economics(1898) that traced the history of sexual discrimination. Argued that confining women to the domestic sphere had become outdated.