series of links connecting the many places of production and distribution and resulting in a commodity that is on world market
with respect to a country, making progress in technology, production, and socioeconomic welfare
Gross National Product (GNP)
The total value of all goods and services produced by a country's economy in a given year. It includes all goods and services produced by corporations and individuals of a country, whether or not they are located within the country.
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
The total value of goods and services produced within the borders of a country during a specific time period, usually one year.
Gross National Income (GNI)
The total value of goods and services produced by a country per year plus net income earned abroad by its nationals; formerly called "gross national product."
Per Capita GNI
The Gross National Product of a given country divided by its population.
The legal economy that is taxed and monitored by a government and is included in a government's Gross National Product; as opposed to an informal economy
Economic activity that is neither taxed nor monitored by a government; and is not included in that government's Gross National Product; as opposed to a formal economy
A model of economic development most closely associated with the work of economist Walter Rostow. The modernization model (sometimes referred to as modernization theory) maintains that all countries go through five interrelated stages of development, which culminate in an economic state of self-sustained economic growth and high levels of mass consumption.
the geographical situation in which something occurs; the combination of what is happening at a variety of scales concurrently
The entrenchment of the colonial order, such as trade and investment, under a new guise.
Structural Adjustment Loans
Loans granted by international financial institutions such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund to countries in the periphery and the semi periphery in exchange for certain economic and governmental reforms in that country(e.g. privatization of certain government entities and opening the country to foreign trade and investment)
A general term for a model of economic development that treats economic disparities among countries or regions as the result of historically derived power relations within the global economic system.
A structuralist theory that offers a critique of the modernization model of development. Based on the idea that certain types of political and economic relations (especially colonialism) between countries and regions of the world have created arrangements that both control and limit the extent to which regions can develop.
When a poorer country ties the value of its currency to that of a wealthier country, or when it abandons its currency and adopts the wealthier country's currency as its own.
World Systems Theory
(Immanuel Wallerstein) illuminated by a three-tier structure (core, semi-periphery, periphery); refers to perspective that seeks to explain the dynamics of the "capitalist world economy" as a "total social system". Important because explains the power hierarchy in which powerful and wealthy "core" societies dominate and exploit weak and poor peripheral societies.
When a family sends a child or an adult to a labor recruiter in hope that the labor recruiter will send money, and the family member will earn more money to send home.
A disease carried from one host to another by an intermediate host.
vectored disease spread by mosquitoes that carry the malaria parasite in their saliva and which kills approximately 150,000 children in the global periphery each month
Export Processing Zones
Zones established by many countries in the periphery and semi-periphery where they offer favorable tax, regulatory, and trade arrangements to attract foreign trade and investment.
Those U.S. firms that have factories just outside the United States/Mexican border in areas that have been specially designated by the Mexican government. In such areas, factories cheaply assemble goods for export back into the United States.
Special Economic Zones
specific area within a country in which tax incentives and less stringent environmental regulations are implemented to attract foreign business and investment
North American Free Trade Agreement
NAFTA an alliance that merges canada, mexico and the united states into a single market
the encroachment of desert conditions on moister zones along the desert margins, wehre plant cover and soils are threatedned by dessiccation-through overuse in part by humans and their domestic animals and possibly in part becouse of the inexorable shifts in the earths environmental zones
Island of Development
Place built up by a government or corporation to attract foreign investment and which has relatively high concentrations of paying jobs and infrastructure.
International organizations that operate outside of the formal political arena but that are nevertheless influential in spearheading international initiatives on social, economic, and environmental issues.
Program that provides small loans to poor people, especially women, to encourage development of small businesses.