AP english- poetry unit

Created by nliebekencht 

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building blocks of poetry....maccherone

words

-create rhythm/meter, rhyme, and form
-define the speaker, characters, setting
-carry ideas and emotions

diction

-word choice

specific/concrete diction

-exact/end up with an image
ex: cherry...hung in bloom
OR three score years and ten

general/abstract diction

ex: infinite spaces and eternal truth

high/formal diction

-correct grammar
-complex words
-lofty tone
-greek/latin vocab

middle/neutral diction

-correct diction
-neither complex language nor slang/jargon

low/informal diction

-relaxed structure
-common, simple, even substandard English or slang
-unself-conscious in tone

Idiom (diction)

-common/accecptable in a particular language
-how its understood by a culture
-creates colloquial tone
-takes on another meaning

Dialect (diction)

-speech common to a particular region or group
-primary feature of local color writing

Slang (diction)

-informal/substandard vocabulary
-used within a standard context slang can jar or shock
-phase out, transitional and always changing

Jargon (diction)

-special terminology of a group
ex: athletes, dancers, army
-establishes authenticity on a subject
-reinforces the speakers reliability
-can be abtruse->hidden meaning

decorum

the concept of words (formal/informal) should fit the subject;also used to refer to manners, dress, behaviors

syntax

word order and sentence structure

parallelism

duplicating forms (parts of speech) in the word order

antithesis

contrasting situation or idea (often saved for the last line)

Chiasmus

inversion of word order from the first part of a sentence in the last part.
-opposite of parallelism

denotation

dictionary meaning of a word

connotation

emotional, physchological, social, and historical associations

imagery

words that trigger your imagination to recall and recombine images
-mental pictures or memories of sights, sounds, tastes, smells, touches that evoke feelings, emotions, responses

visual imagery

referring to sight

auditory imagery

referring to sound

olfactory imagery

referring to smell

gustatory imagery

referring to taste

tactile imagery

referring to touch/texture

kinetic imagery

referring to general motion

kinesthetic imagery

referring to muscle movement in humans and animals

synesthesia

the mixing of sensory description
ex: "a green thought in a green shade"
"the room smelled yellow and orange"
"molten golden notes..."

enjambment

"run-on" end of a line of poetry that carries over to the next line (no punctuation)

caesura

"end-stopped" pause within or at the end of a line of poetry

figures of speech

give poem depth and range

figurative language

-compresses thought
-promotes understanding
-shapes reader responses

metaphor

equates known objects or actions with something that is unknown or to be explained

smilie

show the similarity of the known to something unknown or to be explained

tenor

idea + attitude expressed in a metaphor/smilie by the speaker/author

vehicle

words of metaphor/smilie

paradox

apparent contraditction expressing some truth
"death, thou shalt die"

anaphora

repetition of the same word or phrase through a work/section in order to lend weight or emphasis

apostrophe

direct address to real or imagines listener who is NOT present in the poem
-used for dramatic effect

personification

attribution of human traits to abstractions or to non-human objects

synecdoche

part is used to stand for whole or whole is used to stand for part
"all hands on deck"

metonymy

name of one thing is used to identify something closely associated with it
ex: hollywood=movie industry

pun/paronmasia

word play based on multiple meanings of words with similar or identical sounds

hyperbole

-overstatement
-exaggeration for effect
"i was starved to death"

tone

the poet's attitude about the subject of the poem as expressed through the speaker and controlled by various elements of poetry

irony

powerful aspect of tine that allow reader not only to understand but also feel

verbal irony

the very words mean the opposite of what is expressed

situational irony

derived from the discrepancies between the ideal and the actual

dramatic irony

occurs when the reader understands something that the speaker or another character in the poem does not

satire

revealed through the tone of poem that employs humor and irony to expose human follies and vices

symbolism

shorthand way of referring to extensive ideas or attitudes that otherwise would be impossible to state in the brief format of a poem
-can convert a private moment into an idea of general significance

symbol

has meaning in itself but also understood to represent something else

cultural/universal symbols

drawn from nature , Judeo-Christian religion, mythology, history, custom
-possesses a ready-made clearly agreed upon meaning

contexual/private/authorial symbols

derive meaning from the context in which the author sets them; not widely or universally recognized outside of the individual works.

allusions

-unacknowledged brief quotations from other works
-references to historical events and any aspect of human culture
-can be a single word or phrase or the description of an entire situation
--enrich meaning
--presuppose a common bond of knowledge between the poet and the reader
--can build new ideas in a poem

idea

concept, principle, scheme, method, or plan

theme

idea, image, principle, or motif

motif

(like a melody in music) embodied, repeated, developed within a literary work

meaning

comprehensive reference to the ideas expressed in the poem

speaker

provides a starting point for understanding

character, setting, action

are dramatic elements of meaning

words-diction,denotation, connotation, syntax

are basic to a poem's total meaning and impact

imagery and figures of speech

provide an interpretive basis of ideas

tone

enables the reader to measure and balence ideas

prosody-meter/sound/rhyme

distinguishes and emphasizes ideas

structure and form

allow readers to follow the development of idea

symbol, allusion, and myth

broaden the scope of a poem's ideas

sonnet

-from the Italian for "little song"
-one of the most popular durable of the closed form
-14 lines

Italian /Petrarchan form

named for the medieval Italian poet Petrarch who created the form
-form= 2 quatrians & 2 tercets
-meter=iambic
-ryhme= abba abba / cdc cdc OR cde cde

Shakespearean/English form

adapted by shakespeare for fewer rhymes
-form=3 quatrians & 1 couplet
-meter=iambic
-ryhme= abab cdcd efef / gg

Sonnet Cycle

series of sonnets on a particular theme to a particualr individual
-shakesspeare's cycles included 126 to an unidentified man, 26 to a mysteripus dark lady, and 2 extra to complete the 154 sonnets

couplet

clinches, sums up, enhances
-2 lines

quatrian

4 lines

tercet

6 lines

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