PSYCHOLOGY MIDTERM REVIEW

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psychology

the scientific study of behavior and mental processes. the word psychology comes from two Greek words:
1. psyche- mind/soul
2. logos- study of

behavior

observable and measurable actions of people and animals

psychological constructs

the oretical concept that enables one to discuss something that can't be seen, touched,
or measured directly

basic research

research that is conducted for its own sake, that is, without seeking a solution to a specific problem (experimental psychologists are more likely to engage in this then other psychologists)

behaviorism

the school of psychology, founded by John Watson, that defines psychology as the scientific study of observable behavior our behavior is influenced by the rewards and punishment that have made us who we are

introspection

an examination of one's own thoughts and feelings

functionalism

the school of psychology, founded by William James, that emphasizes the purposes of behavior and mental processes

structuralism

the school of psychology , founded by Wilhelm Wundt, that maintains that conscious experience breaks down into objective sensations and subjective feelings

Gestalt Psychology

the school of psychology that emphasizes the tendency to organize perceptions into meaning wholes

clinical psychologist

makes up the largest group of psychologists. "psychologist" they are what we think of. might be seen due to anxiety, depression, difficulty getting over death of a close family member

consumer psychologist

study the behavior of shoppers and work with advertisers to create interesting advertisements / commercial --- the goal of which being to sell more merchandise for a specific company

developmental psychologist

study the changes that occur throughout a person's life span such as physical, emotional, cognitive, or social

educational psychologist

work on course planning and / or instructional methods for an entire school districts / system

experimental psychologist

are more likely to engage in basic research than other psychologists

school psychologist

would be most likely to identify and help students who have a learning disability such as dyslexia

biological perspective

the psychological perspective that emphasizes the influence of biology on behavior

cognitive perspective

the viewpoint that emphasizes the role of thought processes in determining behavior

evolutionary perspective

the theory focusing on the evolution of behavior and mental processes

humanistic perspective

the psychological view that assumes the existence of the self and emphasizes the importance of self-awareness and the freedom to make choices

psychoanalysis perspective

the perspective that stresses the influence of unconscious forces on human behavior

sociocultural perspective

the perspective that focuses on the roles of ethnicity, gender, culture, and socioeconomic status in personality formation, behavior, and mental processes

ethic group

a group united by cultural heritage, race, language, or common history

psychodynamic thinking

the theory that most of what fills an individuals mind is unconscious and consists of conflicting impulses, urges, and wishes

Albert Bandura

maintains that we acquire knowledge and skills by observing and imitating others (observational learning)

Kenneth Clark

when the Supreme Court struck down segregation in our nation's public schools
in 1954 in the Brown Case, much of Clark's work on the effects of discrimination
on the personality development of both african american and white children was used by Linda Brown's lawyers. PAGE 15

Sigmund Freud

an Austrian physician who revolutionized ideas on how the human mind works. he is the most famous of the early psychologists. he founded the school of thought called Psychoanalysis. (psychoanalysis- the process which emphasizes the importance of unconscious motives and conflicts as determinate of human behavior (the part of the iceberg above the water in conscious behavior and the larger half that is under the water that you can't see is unconscious behavior) ID, EGO, SUPEREGO

Harry Harlow

a psychologist who observed infant monkeys without mothers and or companions to prove the need for contact comfort

William James

Harvard University professor, who wrote the first psychology textbook called The Principles of Psychology he believed that the proper emphasis of psychology should be on how the
human mind functions in helping us to adapt to our environment (James stated that if we believe in the possibility of a future event taking place
this belief increases our power to make the event happen when the time comes
for action)

B.F. Skinner

another Harvard Psychologist who put forth the concept of reinforcement. he is very well- known for his research into the learning process and his belief in a planned society. in his book, Walden Two, published in 1948, he described his ideas of an ideally planned society based on principles of learning. in another book, Beyond Freedom and Dignity, published in 1971, he called for the restriction of certain individual freedoms which hinder the development of the ideally planned society (Utopia)

John Watson

an American psychologist who became a leader of a revolutionary movement in psychology called behaviorism. Watson defined psychology as the scientific study of observable behavior.

William Wundt

1879 = modern psychology 1800s he and a group of students founded a lab used for psychological purposes this took place in 1879 in Leipzig, Germany. This was the birth of modern psychology. they founded a field of experimental psychology which they called structuralism. he is known as the father of modern psychology because he studied the structure of human consciousness his approach to psychology became known as structuralism, however, he is best known for turning the study of behavior into a science.

positive visualization

a method used to help athletes or non-athletes perform more effectively under pressure by using their imagination

observational learning

learning by observing and imitating the behavior of others (children learn to speak, eat, and play
at least partly by observing their parents and others (older siblings) do these things. we learn by watching and imitating role models. role models are people who serve to others as examples of how to behave. after observational behavior takes place, the newly learned behavior continues because it has been + reinforced. TV is a source of behavior modeling. Violent/aggressive movies/ shows may/could lead to an increased incidence of violent/hostile behavior directly related to the aggressive they have witnessed. therefore, children can/may imitate the behavior which they have witnessed on TV.
Examples:
1. John Hinckley attempted to kill President Ronald Reagan in 1981 after watching the movie Taxi Driver 15 times. there was an attempted assassination scene of a U.S. Senator in this film.
2. A film named Born Innocent- a girl was violently raped (with a bottle) by four other girls. in 1974, a similar incident took place to a girl in California. the girls responsible for this rape testified in court that they had witnessed the same scene in the film Born Innocent.)

Psychologist OR Psychiatrist

a psychologist cannot prescribe medicine
-B.A. or B.S. degree
-M.A. Psychology (12 courses- 1 to 1.5 years)
-Doctorate degree (courses large research paper) (2 years) (PHD)
a psychiatrist may prescribe medicine
-B.A. or B.S. degree
-medical school (4 years)
-M.D. degree (medical degree)

Who prescribes medications?

psychiatrist

random selection

putting 600 names in a box and picking 150

target population

the total group to be studied or described and from whom samples may be drawn

random sample

a survey population, selected by chance, which fairly represents the general population

Hawthorne Plant Study

study that took five women and altered there work schedule the output was higher which had increasing productivity

Exploring Diversity

page 32

programmed learning

B.F. Skinner developed this educational method which assumes that any task, no matter how complex, can be broken down into small steps

teaching machines

used in programmed learning, presents the student with the subject matter in a series of steps, each is called a frame. in the frame they must make a response if response is correct then they will move to the next frame if it is wrong the student will go back until it is correct and learned

research questions

best directed towards behavior, they arise out of theory. psychology form these vased on: everyday experiences, other research studies, common sense and folklore (Greek stories on the origin of fire.)

experiments

a controlled scientific procedure to determine whether certain variables manipulated by the researcher have an effect on other variables

control group

in an experiment, the group that does not receive the treatment

experimental group

in a study, the participants who receive treatment

variables

factors that are measured or controlled in a scientific study. independent variable- the factor that is manipulated by the researcher to determine its effect on another variable. dependent variable- that factor that is being measured and that may change in response to manipulation of the independent variable

correlation

relationship between variables. positive correlation- a relationship between variables in which one variable increases as the other variable increases or one variable decreases as the other variable decreases both variables are going in the same direction (example 1: +,+ the more cigarettes you smoke, the greater chance of getting lung cancer. example 2: -,- the less exercise you do, the less weight you will lose) . negative correlation- the relationship between two variables in which when one variable increases the other variable decreases both variables are going in different directions (example 1: the greater the stress the poorer the health. example 2: the more time you spend watching tv, the lower your GPA will be.)

survey method

people respond to a series of questions about a particular subject (ex: Presidential Election Survey)

testing method

several types of tests measure various elements of human behavior such as: abilities, interests, and personalities (ex: IQ tests, aptitude tests and personality tests)

case study method

researchers conduct in depth investigations of individuals and somethings small group of individuals (ex: the films The Three Faces of Eve and Antwone Fisher, Freud's case studies)

longitudinal method

a group of participants are observed at intervals over an extended (long) period of time / 2 years or more (one group just long time) usually parents drop out of study because it is to long

cross sectional method

researchers compare and contrast the similarities and differences among people in different age groups over time (more than one group usually two years or longer)

laboratory observation method

participants are observed in a laboratory setting (ex: people- visiting a laboratory where they are conducting sleep experiments. animals- skinner box)

naturalistic observation method

researchers observe the behavior of people and / or animals in their natural habitats (ex: people-observe the food choices of slender and overweight people in restaurantes. animals- observe a herd of deer in a field)

ethics

rules and standards for proper and responsible behavior

informed consent

an agreement by a person to participate in research after receiving information about the purpose of the study and the nature of the treatment

APA Guidelines on protecting subjects

American Psychology Association (APA) to issue ethical guidelines. essentially these guidelines state that you should "do not harm" to your subjects while they are in your research study
and under your care. according to the APA psychologists may deceive their subjects in an experiment as long as there will be no harmful effects to the subjects and the subjects are eventually informed of the deception

nervous system

has two main parts:
1. the Central Nervous System
2. the Peripheral Nervous System
figure 3.3 page 57

Peripheral Nervous System

the neutrons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body, including the muscles and glands

neurons / nerve cells

are the basic building blocks of the nervous system. neuron is another name for nerve cell and vice versa
figure 3.1 page 54

cell body

the part of a neuron that produces the energy needed for the activity of the cell
figure 3.1 page 54

dendrites

the branchlike extensions of a neuron that receives impulses and conduct them toward the cell body DT=Dendrites Toward
figure 3.1 page 54

axon

a long tubelike attached to the neuron that transmits impulses away from the neuron that transmits impulses away from the body. AA=Axons Away
figure 3.1 page 54

axon terminals

small fibers branching out from an axon
figure 3.1 page 54

synapse

the junction between the axon terminals of the sending neuron and the dendrites of the receiving neuron
figure 3.2 page 55

spinal cord

a column of nerves within in the spine that transmit messages to and from the brain
figure 3.3 page 57

amygdala

the neural center of the brain that plays a central role in our emotions such as: aggression and fear

hippocampus

a part of the brain invovled in memory storage, it does not fully mature until we are three years of age. the fact that this is so supports the concept of infantile amnesia which is the inability to remember events that occurred during one's early years --- before the age of three

classical conditioning

a type of learning in which a neutral stimulus comes to elicit an unconditioned reflex/response when that neutral stimulus is repeatedly paired with a unconditional reflex/response.

unconditioned stimulus

in classical conditioning, a stimulus that elicits an unlearned, naturally occurring response (ex: Pavlov- ucs-meat / food)

conditioned stimulus

a previously neutral stimulus that, because of pairing with
an unconditioned stimulus, now causes a conditioned reflex/response. the conditioned stimulus is a learned stimulus! (ex: Pavlov- cs-bell)

unconditional response

in classical conditioning, an unlearned response (ex: Pavlov- ucr-salivation)

conditioned response

a learned reflex/response to a previously neutral. stimulus- the bell (ex: Pavlov- cr- salvation)

taste aversion

a type of classical conditioning in which a previously desirable food comes to be perceived as repugnant because it is associated with negative stimulation. (pizza then getting sick on it and avoiding it)

counterconditioning

a therapy procedure based on classical conditioning that replaces a negative response to a stimulus with a positive response (ex: Peter with the rabbits and candy)

reinforcement

a stimulus or event that follows a response and increases the frequency of that response

extinction

in classical conditioning the disappearance of a conditioned response when an unconditioned stimulus no longer follows a conditioned stimulus

operant conditioning

learning that is strengthened when behavior is followed by positive reinforcement (ex: teaching dogs or verbal praise)

primary reinforcers

stimuli, such as food or warmth, that have reinforcement value without learning (ex: food, water, warmth, people and animals)

secondary reinforcers

stimuli that increases the probablity of a response because of their association with a primary reinforcer (money and warmth) (ex: secondary can buy primary)

latent learning

learning that occurs or takes place but remains hidden until there is a need to use it (school)

observational learning

learning by observing and imitating others (smiling and hugging) ALBERT BANDURA

flashbulb memory

clear memories of emotionally significant moments or events (positive= high school graduation, wedding or negative= death)

interference

the process that occurs when new information appears in short term memory and replaces what was already there (going home/practice is interfering with school)

relearning

learning material a second time usually in less time than it was originally learned (algebra problems or guitar)

encoding / chunking

(encoding) the translation of information into a form that can be stored in memory 1st process of memory (OTTFFSSENT)

implicit memory

a memory that consists of the skills and procedures one has learned that are retrieved without conscious recollection (ex: walking, talking, keyboarding)

explicit memory

a memory of specific information one must consciously retrieve and declare (ex: quiz, test, EXam (EXplicit)

elaborative rehearsal

a memory device that creates a meaningful link between new information and the information already known (ex: foreign language teachers use this method by having people write sentences with new words)

maintenance rehearsal

the repetition of the new information in an attempt to keep from forgetting it (ex: actors use it to learn their lines)

STM (short term memory)

memory that olds information briefly before it is stored or forgotten (ex: 7= number of items that can be stored by STM)

LTM (long term memory)

the type or stage of memory capable of large and relatively permanent storage (elaborate rehearsal and maintenance rehearsal and two ways we use to put information into long term memory)

Ebbinghaus's Curve of Forgetting

according to his experiments are ability to recall a list of nonsense syllables decreases dramatically during the first hour after learning the list we lose 60% of the information within the first hour

Figure 7.4

http://www.cnsspectrums.com/userdocs/ArticleImages/Stahl_figure1.jpg or page 168

amnesia

is severe memory loss caused by brain injury, shock, fatigue, illness, or repression

infantile amnesia

the inability to remember events that occurred during one's early years (before age three)

anterograde amnesia

the inability to form new memories because of brain trauma

retrograde amnesia

the failure to remember events that occurred prior to physical trauma because of the effects of the trauma

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